• A mature distance learning program (e.g., Pennsylvania State University’s GIS curriculum).

• Certificates acknowledging special trammg in selected subject matter (e.g., University of Utah graduate certificate in GIS with an emphasis in remote sensing).

• Summer programs, short courses, and workshops aimed at teaching advanced techniques and methods (e.g., Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research’s summer program in GIS and spatial analysis; ION’s short courses in positioning, navigation, and timing; ESRI’s annual user’s conference, with short courses on GIS technology and skills).

• Programs that send employees for training at universities while receiving full salary and benefits (e.g., NGA’s Vector Study Program).

• Operational training in issuing forecasts and warnings (e.g., National Weather Service’s Warning Decision Training Branch).

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