7

Building Knowledge and Skills

Chapter 6 described the various types of university, government, professional society, and industry programs that currently offer some type of education or training in geospatial disciplines, methods, or technology. Although not designed for the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), many of these programs could be used by NGA to obtain some useful knowledge or skills. NGA could also take steps to build the specialized expertise it needs in the future.

NGA has a number of useful programs for building knowledge and skills in specific areas or expanding the diversity of the pool of applicants. These include programs to train current employees (e.g., NGA College, Vector Study Program), grants to academic institutions and consortia to support NGA-relevant research and education, and scholarships and internships to support students interested in pursuing a career in geospatial intelligence (Box 7.1). This chapter focuses on other actions NGA can take to build the specialized knowledge and skills it needs to ensure an adequate U.S. supply of geospatial intelligence experts, including the emerging areas, over the next 20 years (Task 4). The objective was to provide a menu of choices of varying scope, not to identify priorities. The ideas are organized into three categories: building new knowledge in the core and emerging areas, strengthening existing training programs, and enhancing recruitment efforts.

BUILDING THE CORE AND EMERGING AREAS

Most of the education and training in core and emerging areas takes place in universities. NGA supports some of these efforts by funding research projects and students (Box 7.1). Funding could also be directed toward building university programs, curricula, and academic support infrastructure to help develop fields of interest to NGA, as described below. Partnerships with other agencies (e.g., National Science Foundation [NSF], National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) on mutual topics of interest would stretch NGA’s research dollars and help sustain initiatives long enough to ensure a sufficient supply of experts over the next 20 years.

University Affiliated Research Centers

University Affiliated Research Centers (UARCs) are government research centers attached to universities at the forefront of a specific research area. The Department of Defense (DOD) began establishing UARCs in 1996 to help maintain core engineering and technology capabilities. The initial set of centers is still operating and more have been added, attesting to their usefulness to DOD. There are currently 13 DOD UARCs, none of which are focused on geospatial technology or applications. An NGA UARC could support geospatial intelligence areas that would not otherwise exist in the university; foster ongoing collaboration among research faculty, Ph.D. students, and NGA staff; and maintain



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7 Building Knowledge and Skills C hapter 6 described the various types of uni- BUILDING THE CORE AND versity, government, professional society, and EMERGING AREAS industry programs that currently offer some type of education or training in geospatial disciplines, Most of the education and training in core and methods, or technology. Although not designed for emerging areas takes place in universities. NGA sup- the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), ports some of these efforts by funding research projects many of these programs could be used by NGA to ob- and students (Box 7.1). Funding could also be directed tain some useful knowledge or skills. NGA could also toward building university programs, curricula, and take steps to build the specialized expertise it needs in academic support infrastructure to help develop fields the future. of interest to NGA, as described below. Partnerships NGA has a number of useful programs for building with other agencies (e.g., National Science Foundation knowledge and skills in specific areas or expanding the [NSF], National Aeronautics and Space Administra- diversity of the pool of applicants. These include pro- tion [NASA], National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad- grams to train current employees (e.g., NGA College, ministration) on mutual topics of interest would stretch Vector Study Program), grants to academic institutions NGA’s research dollars and help sustain initiatives long and consortia to support NGA-relevant research and enough to ensure a sufficient supply of experts over the education, and scholarships and internships to support next 20 years. students interested in pursuing a career in geospatial intelligence (Box 7.1). This chapter focuses on other ac- University Affiliated Research Centers tions NGA can take to build the specialized knowledge and skills it needs to ensure an adequate U.S. supply of University Affiliated Research Centers (UARCs) geospatial intelligence experts, including the emerging are government research centers attached to universities areas, over the next 20 years (Task 4). The objective at the forefront of a specific research area. The Depart- was to provide a menu of choices of varying scope, ment of Defense (DOD) began establishing UARCs in not to identify priorities. The ideas are organized into 1996 to help maintain core engineering and technology three categories: building new knowledge in the core capabilities. The initial set of centers is still operating and emerging areas, strengthening existing training and more have been added, attesting to their usefulness programs, and enhancing recruitment efforts. to DOD. There are currently 13 DOD UARCs, none of which are focused on geospatial technology or ap- plications. An NGA UARC could support geospatial intelligence areas that would not otherwise exist in the university; foster ongoing collaboration among research faculty, Ph.D. students, and NGA staff; and maintain 89

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90 FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE BOX 7.1 NGA Grants, Scholarships, and Internships NGA’s Academic Research Program awards research grants to universities to support basic research of interest to the agency, to fill gaps in imagery or geospatial science and technology, and/or to develop associated education and training programs.a NGA also offers scholarships and paid internships to college students.b Programs include the following: NGA University Research Initiatives—support research in geospatial intelligence disciplines at U.S. colleges and universities that carry out science and engineering research and/or related education. Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Grants—support educational research to develop and enrich geospatial research and teaching environments at historically black colleges or universities and minority serving institutions. NGA Outstanding New Scientific and Technical Innovative Researcher Program—support innovative NGA-relevant research by faculty members who have held their doctorate degrees for less than 5 years. NGA Research Collaboration Forums—encourage collaboration among educational institutions that carry out science and engineering research to advance scientific breakthroughs or improve understanding of research areas of interest to NGA. Service Academy Education—support basic research and education-related research activities in geospatial sciences at the U.S. service academies. Visiting Scientist Program—place visiting academic researchers in NGA facilities. NGA Student Employment Program—provide summer internships to undergraduate and graduate students to give them real work experience and prepare them for future employment with NGA. NGA Stokes Scholarship Program—provide college undergraduates who have demonstrated financial need and interest in an NGA career with tuition assistance, challenging summer work, and a guaranteed position in their field of study upon graduation. Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation (SMART) Program—provide a full scholarship, stipend for living expenses, and employment in the federal government upon completion of a degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics. NGA is a participating placement site for the scholars. ________ a See . b See . a long-term research and development focus on areas to develop the Army’s next generation of immersive critical to NGA. training environments. Funding for the center, initially A new UARC is usually initiated at a high level $10 million per year for 5 years, has grown to more than within an agency. For example, the University of $25 million per year. S ­ outhern California’s Institute for Creative Tech- nologies was initiated by the chief scientist of the Centers of Excellence U.S. Army at the time, A. Michael Andrews, II, who was inspired by the NRC (1997) report Modeling Centers of excellence are commonly established and Simulation—­ inking Entertainment and Defense. L to carry out collaborative research, create tools and Dr. Andrews requested the chair of the NRC commit- data sets, and build a cohort of trained individuals in tee to draft a research agenda and operating plan for subject areas outside traditional academic, business, or a UARC focused on using entertainment technologies government departments. They are similar to UARCs,

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BUILDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS 91 but can be situated at universities, government agen- the government, potentially facilitating recruitment cies, national laboratories, or private companies; and and increasing the pool of graduates with knowledge they can cover any topic that requires a team approach and skills needed by the sponsor agency (or agencies), or shared facilities. depending on how long funding is sustained. Multiple The Intelligence Community Centers of Excel- years of support are commonly required to build edu- lence, which are partly supported by NGA, are focused cation programs as well as to fund graduate students on improving the representation of minorities and with dissertation or thesis topics of direct interest to women in critical competencies, such as information an agency. technology, language, political science and ­ conomics, e science and engineering, and threat analysis.1 An ex- Virtual Centers ample of centers that both generate mission-specific knowledge and train the next generation of experts are UARCs and centers of excellence have a physical the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) centers home, although many participants do not work there. of excellence. Established as part of the Homeland A virtual center may or may not have a home, but usu- Security Act of 2002,2 the centers are intended to en- ally consists of a leader and appointed or self-selected hance homeland security by generating knowledge and members who work on a common goal from their own ideas for new technologies in a wide range of subjects. institutions. Virtual centers are easy to establish (and Major themes of the centers include terrorism; micro- disestablish) and relatively inexpensive to operate, and bial risk; zoonotic disease; food security; preparedness; the structure can be customized to the need. Maintain- explosive-related threats; border security; maritime ing a virtual center can be as simple as providing a web and remote resources; coastal areas; transportation; and server and supporting conferencing. command, control, and interoperability. Each center is Virtual centers are often created where fields are led by a university, often in collaboration with other evolving rapidly and the necessary skills and knowledge universities, national laboratories, nongovernmental for advancing them are scattered across many institu- organizations, government agencies, and private com- tions. Indeed, virtual clearinghouses for curriculum and panies. A few of the centers touch on emerging areas contact information were essential for the development discussed in this report. For example, the Center of of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) studies Excellence in Command, Control, and Interoperability (e.g., Kemp and Goodchild, 1992) and are now being at Purdue University covers visual analytics for security used to help develop the visual analytics field (Thomas applications. Many of the centers also provide educa- and Cook, 2006). Virtual centers could provide sev- tion and training to students and/or professionals. For eral types of benefits to NGA, including providing example, the National Consortium for the Study of a means to build emerging areas in universities or to Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism offers a graduate facilitate collaboration among NGA offices or partner certificate in terrorism analysis and an undergraduate organizations. minor in terrorism studies, and the Center for Mari- An example of a virtual center focused on facilitat- time, Island and Remote and Extreme Environment ing research collaborations is the Research Information Security offers professional development courses in Centre, which was developed jointly by Microsoft port-security sensing technologies. Research Connections and The British Library. The Centers of excellence can be effective sources of center provides management software tools, such as inno­ ation, especially those housed in private com- v domain-specific project site templates, calendars, task panies (e.g., Frost et al., 2002). Centers located in lists, wikis, blogs, and surveys (Barga et al., 2007). universities also create a culture that links research and Tools for automating collaboration among research groups across locations and disciplines are now under 1 See . A list of centers can be found at . port the building of common reference data, bodies of 2 Public Law 107-296. See also .

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92 FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE removing the impacts of physical separation on col- relevant to their mission, thereby helping to expand laborative research. A study on the project found that the supply of potential employees with the necessary shared access to data, tools, computational resources, training and skills. For example, NASA has sponsored and collaborators has led to faster research results and several projects to develop remote sensing curricula.4 novel research directions (Carusi and Reimer, 2010). Opportunities abound for NGA to get involved in cur- riculum development in emerging or other areas that Research Partnerships suit their workforce needs. A particularly promising focus is an interdisciplinary master’s degree curricu- Innovation in geospatial technology commonly lum in geospatial intelligence topics. Interdisciplinary comes from industry or collaborations with industry. master’s programs are politically easier and less costly Examples of such technologies used by NGA include for universities to implement than interdisciplinary ArcGIS Military Analyst, which was developed by the bachelor’s programs. Moreover, efforts to establish such Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), and curricula would demonstrate to universities the need for FalconView, a PC-based mapping application devel- interdisciplinary education. Curriculum development oped by the Georgia Tech Research Institute. One way at the NGA College may also be fruitful. Such efforts to nurture nonproprietary technology innovations is to are often inexpensive and can yield major returns. develop research partnerships with private companies. Past experience with creating academic curriculum Cooperative Research and Development Agreements in emerging geospatial areas is well illustrated by the (CRADAs) are commonly used to establish research NSF’s National Center for Geographic Information and development partnerships between a government and Analysis (NCGIA), which was established in agency and a private company. Partnerships between 1989. The proposal to create the center included de- universities and industry can be formed through a velopment of a core curriculum in GIS. At the time, v ­ ariety of means. For example, NSF’s Industry & Uni- no major textbook on the subject had been written versity Cooperative Research Program provides a means and few universities offered classes. Therefore, the for universities and private companies to establish a initial NCGIA core curriculum, published in 1990, center, supported primarily by industry, to collaborate was targeted at university and college instructors on ­projects of mutual interest.3 The program is ­intended and included lesson plans, lecture slides, and support to help build the nation’s research infrastructure and to m ­ aterials. The ­ urriculum was a success, with requests c enhance the intellectual capacity of the science and en- for the materials from hundreds of institutions nation- gineering workforce. Private companies provide funding ally and internationally (Kemp and Goodchild, 1991). and technological capabilities, and universities provide Ongoing demand led to a second version of the GIS cutting-edge research capabilities. Graduate students core curriculum, this time using the web as the main contribute to the research projects and also become creation and distribution channel. An overall design familiar with industrially relevant research. and structure was created, and leading scholars were Some of the centers in the Industry & University invited to contribute content to each of the modules. Cooperative Research Program address topics of inter- Although the web version of the GIS core curriculum est to NGA, such as remote sensing, visual analytics, was overtaken by Wikis and by new textbooks and and data fusion. Government agencies can become software, its model for basic classes and topics remains partners in the centers or use this model to build critical at the forefront of university-level GIS instruction infrastructure and worker skills specific to their needs. today (Howarth and Sinton, 2011). Curriculum Development Academic Support Infrastructure A number of federal agencies have sponsored The academic support infrastructure for the initiatives to develop or enhance curricula in areas emerging areas—professional societies, special interest 3 See . 4 See .

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BUILDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS 93 groups, journals or special issues of journals, workshops, the core areas are limited compared to those offered by conferences, websites, and blogs—is still in its infancy a top university degree program (Box 5.2). As a result, (see Chapter 3). Although such support systems will current employees are receiving less in-depth training come as the fields develop in academia, NGA may be than employees who are nearing retirement. Increasing able to encourage their growth by increasing awareness enrollments in the Vector Study Program could fore- of the emerging areas and their interest to NGA. Pos- stall a loss of skill. In addition, the NGA College offers sible actions include the following: few classes in the emerging areas. Adding graduate pro- grams in emerging areas to the Vector Study Program • Funding a university scientist to edit a special would produce NGA employees with new skills. About issue on an emerging topic in a journal by soliciting one-third of universities that participate in the Vector articles from colleagues. Study Program have departments that provide strong • Creating a blog (classified or unclassified). education and training in an emerging area (see Tables • Soliciting articles by leading academics on the A.6–A.10 in Appendix A). These universities may be emerging areas for NGA’s Pathfinder Magazine. good near-term candidates for Vector Study Programs • Funding individuals to write wikis or maintain a in emerging areas. Because Vector Study Programs are clearinghouse of executable software used in research. developed by university faculty members in collabora- • Sponsoring sessions on emerging themes at key tion with NGA, the new programs would also allow conferences. NGA to influence developments in the field. The flexibility of the Vector Study Program could Success could be measured by the emergence of formal be increased by including online or distance-learning academic infrastructures (e.g., journals, society interest classes in the program, which would allow employees to groups) that are self-supporting or by the number of take courses while working part-time at NGA. Once a articles in the emerging areas and their citation counts. sufficient number of online credits have been acquired, the employee could complete the degree requirements STRENGTHENING TRAINING on campus. The combination of online and on-campus study could be tailored to suit the individual and/ NGA trains its employees and contractors primar- or program need. Another way to increase program ily through the Vector Study Program and the NGA flexibility is to allow both shorter and longer periods College. Actions NGA can take to strengthen training of study. The program currently specifies a number of offered by these programs and other opportunities to semesters in a particular period (e.g., two semesters and train current employees are described below. a summer session in one calendar year for a nonthesis master’s degree in photogrammetry). A midcareer em- Vector Study Program ployee could benefit significantly from even a single semester of refresher courses, advanced courses in their The Vector Study Program has produced a rela- specialty area, or introductory courses in new or emerg- tively large number of NGA employees with advanced ing areas. Other employees could benefit from a longer skills and training, particularly in photogrammetry course of study, such as an extra year. Ph.D. programs and geodesy. However, enrollments in the core areas in particular are difficult to finish in the time allowed have been declining, jeopardizing the viability of aca- by the program, and both online and distance learn- demic photogrammetry programs, and Vector Study ing and longer periods in residence on campus would Programs do not exist in the emerging areas. Because facilitate their completion. An extension would also academic programs in many areas of interest to NGA allow courses in multiple areas to be combined, such are already in place, expanding and/or modifying the as language and photogrammetry. Such individuals Vector Study Program would result in nearly immedi- with diverse training are needed for NGA to meet its ate gains in staff trained in critical areas. continuously evolving responsibilities. Although most NGA employees receive special- ized training at the NGA College, class offerings in

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94 FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE Reviews of the NGA College have been led by government and industry instructors, but supporting university faculty to conduct workshops University departments commonly rely on external would bring new ideas and learning to the geospatial reviews to obtain feedback on past performance and intelligence community beyond the technology training ideas for future directions. The reviews can be formal or provided by industry, as well as expose more university informal, and they are carried out by visiting commit- faculty to NGA programs. tees of independent experts on a schedule that allows ongoing course corrections. External reviews could ENHANCING RECRUITMENT provide similar benefits to the NGA College.5 Under- standing strengths and weaknesses in the curriculum Organizations can find qualified candidates by re- or faculty would help NGA College administrators cruiting at universities or events (e.g., job fairs, profes- ensure that the curriculum remains up to date and sional society meetings) and by being highly visible to that the teaching staff are of the highest caliber. For the public. NGA’s small size and intelligence mission the review to be independent, members of the review minimizes its public presence. Increasing awareness of committee would not be associated with the college, the agency and using new approaches to find candidates but would be familiar with its goals and curriculum. with desired skills could increase the number of quali- Evaluators could be drawn from universities, profes- fied applicants for NGA positions. Previous chapters sional societies concerned with geospatial science and ­ discussed where NGA could look for candidates with technology (e.g., Table 6.1), and/or various branches of geospatial skills (e.g., see “Recruiting” in Chapter 5 and the armed services. Tables A.1–A.10, Appendix A). Some possible mecha- nisms for increasing awareness of NGA for recruiting Workshops at Professional Society Meetings purposes are described below. Many national conferences include workshops, Sessions at Professional Society Meetings seminars, and training courses on specific topics, which provide an opportunity to bring NGA employees up to Professional society meetings and conferences date on new developments. Setting up workshops and are a primary means for professionals to learn about seminars is usually simple, requiring only a workshop breaking research developments and to showcase their organizer, credentialed instructors, and a mechanism own research results. Such sessions also increase com- for promoting the activity and registering students. By munity awareness of what organizations such as NGA careful targeting (e.g., training in emerging areas), and are doing and creates opportunities for recruiting. ­ by expending only small amounts of funds, it should be Employees of NGA and its predecessor organizations possible to send employees to the right workshops or commonly make technical presentations at professional to encourage the development of workshops taught by society meetings. For example, the Institute of Navi- academics to meet NGA workforce needs. gation has been an important venue for keeping users An example of a venue that offers opportunities for informed about changes in the DOD World Geodetic workshops and other kinds of training in the emerging System 1984 (WGS 84), which provides the reference areas is the annual GEOINT Community Week, which coordinate system for the Global Positioning System is hosted by the U.S. Geospatial Intelligence Founda- and the reference frame upon which all geospatial in- tion (USGIF). The conference includes workshops, telligence and other geospatial applications are based such as the 2011 workshop on analytic transformation, (e.g., Swift, 1994; Malys et al., 1997; Cunningham et which covered emergent technologies and analytical al., 1998; Merrigan et al., 2002; Wiley et al., 2006). methods. To date, most of the workshops and classes Professional society meetings also played a key role in enlisting the help of the community in evaluating vari- 5 According to a May 23, 2011, presentation made by Mark ous components of WGS 84 (e.g., Ture, 2004). Such Pahls, Chief of Learning Integration at the NGA College, classes community interactions, especially with students, could are not formally assessed and new directions are determined in be leveraged to help recruit new employees. consultation with a learning advisory board.

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BUILDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS 95 Over the past few years, NGA has been hosting Engaging Activities for Universities technical sessions at meetings of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS). Recruitment events at colleges, universities, and The ASPRS Defense and Intelligence Sub­ ommittee, c meetings are often relatively passive, with students which is co-chaired by NGA’s senior scientist for photo­ receiving printed media and posing questions. More grammetry, has organized both classified and unclassi- active engagement at such events could both provide fied technical sessions. For example, the 2011 annual more information to potential employees and allow conference included an unclassified special session on individuals with the right combination of reasoning photogrammetry and the next generation of unmanned skills to be identified. For example, bringing a train- systems, and the 2011 ASPRS Pecora 18 Symposium ing exercise to a university recruitment event would included an unclassified session on the human dimen- enable students to actively engage in intelligence-like sions of anticipatory intelligence analysis. Such sessions activities. Students could be provided with a situation increase NGA’s visibility on specific technical issues. To to solve—such as intelligence about a facility or a natu- expand overall awareness of NGA, and thus increase ral disaster—and maps or software, and then asked to recruitment opportunities, NGA could encourage prepare and justify an analysis. Alternatively, students students to attend the unclassified sessions to get a could be presented with results of a classic intelligence first-hand idea of some of the technical work at NGA. outcome and asked to analyze the decisions and the The NGA-organized sessions could also include a pre- required information. Interactive feedback from re- sentation on the agency’s mission and activities, similar cruiters is likely to be far more detailed and engaging to what is presented at graduate seminars at universities. in such an environment. Recruiters would be able In addition, hosting receptions following some of these to observe the students while problem solving and to sessions would provide an opportunity for students to judge capabilities and experience, rather than deducing talk informally with NGA scientists and analysts. it from a resume. Such activities could also be offered on GIS day7 or provide the basis for an online quiz. Social Media Site Aptitude Tests The next generation of NGA employees will be familiar and comfortable with the use of social media Career and employment aptitude tests use person- for all aspects of their daily lives, including searching ality tests, intelligence tests, work samples, and other for jobs and internships and exchanging informa- tests to determine the suitability or desirability of a job tion. At little expense, NGA could establish a strong applicant (Stevens and Campion, 1999). Some tests social media presence that links and acts as a broker correlate better with job performance than others, so for the existing recruitment information on the NGA employers often use more than one test to maximize website. Such social media sites have been created by predictive power (Barrick and Mount, 1991). The use other defense-related agencies, such as the Australian of career aptitude tests for recruiting has gained trac- ­Defence Department.6 tion (Droege, 1983), including for military recruitment By granting admission to NGA interns, employees, (e.g., Getkate et al., 1992). Internet and online sub­ and others, NGA could maintain a set of highly moti- mission are increasingly common for these tests. vated and interested users, who could be instantly in- A significant amount of research has been carried formed of recruitment events, news, job opportunities, out on aptitude tests. By using custom design and ex- the Vector Study Program, and other topics. Features isting tests, an NGA workforce targeted test could be such as a director’s blog or postings from NGA product assembled or developed relatively easily. Should such users could stimulate interest and provide a broader a test prove useful to NGA, it could be used in two interest group for the content of Pathfinder magazine, ways: (1) as part of the diagnostic and training stage with the target of increasing recruitment. for new NGA employees and (2) as an online tool to 7 A global event to showcase real-world applications of GIS. See 6 See . .

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96 FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE assist in recruiting. NGA could also take advantage of • Increase the agency’s visibility to potential job generic aptitude tests administered by various testing applicants by organizing sessions at professional con- services. Individuals scoring highly on skills or native ferences and establishing a social media site with career ability suited to spatial reasoning, geography, or image information. interpretation could easily be referred by the testing • Seek qualified candidates by using career ap- services to NGA as possible recruits. titude tests or by engaging students in interesting problem-solving exercises at recruiting events. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The examples above illustrate the variety of mecha- The fourth task of the committee was to suggest nisms that can be used to ensure the future availability ways to build the necessary knowledge and skills to en- of geospatial intelligence expertise. Some mechanisms sure an adequate U.S. supply of geospatial intelligence would build expertise in the long term (e.g., UARCs, experts over the next 20 years. To address the task, research partnerships with industry, curriculum devel- the committee identified a menu of NGA actions of opment, academic support infrastructure), while others varying scope and complexity, including the following: could provide more immediate gains (e.g., Vector Study Program expansion, virtual centers, professional soci- • Establish research centers (UARCs, centers of ety workshops and short courses, recruitment efforts). excellence, virtual centers) to gather experts from dif- Most mechanisms would be relatively inexpensive to ferent fields and/or organizations to work on issues implement (e.g., virtual centers, curriculum develop- critical to NGA. ment, recruiting efforts), while some could require sub- • Establish research partnerships between private stantial investment, depending on size and scope (e.g., companies and universities and/or government agen- UARCs, Vector Study Program expansion, centers cies to support technological innovation. of excellence). The need is greatest for the emerging • Sponsor university efforts to develop core curri- areas, which have the potential to improve geospatial cula and academic support infrastructure (e.g., journals, intelligence, but which currently produce few graduates conferences) needed to advance the emerging areas. and which lack the academic infrastructure to develop • Expand the Vector Study Program to enhance quickly. However, these mechanisms could also be employee skills in core areas and add new skills in used to build other areas of interest to NGA, such as emerging areas. core areas for which the pool of qualified applicants is • Institute periodic external reviews of the NGA small and shrinking (cartography, photogrammetry). College to ensure the quality of the curriculum and Getting involved with education and training programs instructors. would also provide opportunities for NGA to influence • Send employees to short courses at professional the development of fields it relies on to carry out its society meetings and fund university professors to mission. d ­ evelop short courses in areas of interest to NGA.