standards and tools could create new reasons to share data. Funders could consider an investigator’s previous experience and future data-sharing plans in making grant funding decisions. Journals could agree on standard practices that authors must follow. A culture of data sharing could be built into the education of the next generation of clinical researchers.

The advent of organizations outside the traditional biomedical research enterprise offering data analysis and medical advice over the Internet has introduced a new force of cultural change, Harrington observed. If the system does not change from the inside, change may be imposed on it from the outside.

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