title

THE INFORMED BRAIN
IN A DIGITAL WORLD

title

INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH TEAM SUMMARIES

Conference

Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center

Irvine, California

November 15-17, 2012

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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THE FUTURE OF THE INFORMED BRAIN IN AHUMAN HEALTHSPAN DIGITAL WORLD Demography, Evolution, Medicine, and Bioengineering INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH TEAM SUMMARIES TA S K G R O U P S U M M A R I E S Conference Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center Irvine, California November 15-17, 2012

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The Interdisciplinary Research (IDR) team summaries in this publication are based on IDR team discussions during the National Academies Keck Futures ­Initiative Conference on the Informed Brain in a Digital World held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, November 15-17, 2012. The discussions in these groups were summarized by the authors and reviewed by the members of each IDR team. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the IDR teams and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. For more information on the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative visit www.keckfutures.org. Funding for the activity that led to this publication was provided by the W.M. Keck Foundation. Based in Los Angeles, the W. M. Keck Foundation was established in 1954 by the late W.M. Keck, founder of the Superior Oil Company. In recent years, the Foundation has focused on Science and Engineering Research; Medical Research; Under­ raduate Education; and Southern California. Each grant program invests in g people and programs that are making a difference in the quality of life, now and for the future. For more information visit www.wmkeck.org. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26888-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26888-5 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a man- date that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES KECK FUTURES INITIATIVE INFORMED BRAIN STEERING COMMITTEE MICHAEL S. GAZZANIGA, Chair (NAS/IOM), Director, The Sage Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara C. GORDON BELL (NAS/NAE), Principal Researcher, Microsoft Research FLOYD E. BLOOM (NAS/IOM), Professor Emeritus, Molecular and Integrative Neuroscience Department, The Scripps Research Institute APOSTOLOS GEORGOPOULOS (IOM), Regents Professor, McKnight Presidential Chair in Cognitive Neuroscience, American Legion Brain Sciences Chair, Professor of Neuroscience, Neurology and Psychiatry, Brain Sciences Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center CHARLES D. GILBERT (NAS), Arthur and Janet Ross Professor, Laboratory of Neurobiology, The Rockefeller University TODD F. HEATHERTON, Lincoln Filene Professor in Human Relations, Dartmouth College MICHAEL A. KELLER, Ida M. Green University Librarian, Director of Academic Information Resources, Stanford University Cecil H. Green Library GLORIA MARK, Professor, Department of Informatics, Interactive and Collaborative Technologies, Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine RUSSELL A. POLDRACK, Director, Imaging Research Center, Professor of Psychology and Neurobiology, University of Texas at Austin REBECCA SAXE, Assistant Professor, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology TERRENCE J. SEJNOWSKI (NAS/NAE/IOM), Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Francis Crick Professor, Salk Institute for Biological Studies BRIAN A. WANDELL (NAS), Isaac and Madeline Stein Family Professor, Department of Psychology, Stanford University Staff KENNETH R. FULTON, Executive Director KIMBERLY A. SUDA-BLAKE, Senior Program Director ANNE HEBERGER MARINO, Senior Evaluation Associate CRISTEN KELLY, Associate Program Officer RACHEL LESINSKI, Program Associate Consultant BARBARA J. CULLITON, Director, NAKFI Science Writing Scholar Program v

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The National Academies Keck Futures Initiative THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES KECK FUTURES INITIATIVE The National Academies Keck Futures Initiative was launched in 2003 to stimulate new modes of scientific inquiry and break down the conceptual and institutional barriers to interdisciplinary research. The National Acad- emies and the W. M. Keck Foundation believe that considerable scientific progress will be achieved by providing a counterbalance to the tendency to isolate research within academic fields. The Futures Initiative is designed to enable scientists from different disciplines to focus on new questions, upon which they can base entirely new research, and to encourage and reward outstanding communication between scientists as well as between the sci- entific enterprise and the public. The Futures Initiative includes three main components: Futures Conferences The Futures Conferences bring together some of the nation’s best and brightest researchers from academic, industrial, and government labora- tories to explore and discover interdisciplinary connections in important areas of cutting-edge research. Each year, some 150 outstanding research- ers are invited to discuss ideas related to a single cross-disciplinary theme. Participants gain not only a wider perspective but also, in many instances, new insights and techniques that might be applied in their own work. Ad- ditional pre- or post-conference meetings build on each theme to foster further communication of ideas. vii

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viii THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES KECK FUTURES INITIATIVE Selection of each year’s theme is based on assessments of where the inter- section of science, engineering, and medical research has the greatest ­potential to spark discovery. The first conference explored Signals, Decisions, and Meaning in Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Engineering. The 2004 conference focused on Designing Nanostructures at the Interface between Biomedical and Physical Systems. The theme of the 2005 conference was The Genomic Revolu- tion: Implications for Treatment and Control of Infectious Disease. In 2006 the conference focused on Smart Prosthetics: Exploring Assistive Devices for the Body and Mind. In 2007 the conference explored The Future of Human Healthspan: Demography, Evolution, Medicine, and Bioengineering. In 2008 the conference focused on Complex Systems. The 2009 conference explored Synthetic Biology: Building on Nature’s Inspiration. The 2010 conference focused on Seeing the Future with Imaging Science. The 2011 conference focused on Ecosystem Ser- vices. The 2012 conference focused on The Informed Brain in a Digital World and the 2013 conference will explore advanced nuclear technologies. Futures Grants The Futures Grants provide seed funding to Futures Conference partici- pants, on a competitive basis, to enable them to pursue important new ideas and connections stimulated by the conferences. These grants fill a critical missing link between bold new ideas and major federal funding programs, which do not currently offer seed grants in new areas that are considered risky or exotic. These grants enable researchers to start developing a line of inquiry by supporting the recruitment of students and postdoctoral fellows, the purchase of equipment, and the acquisition of preliminary data—which in turn can position the researchers to compete for larger awards from other public and private sources. NAKFI Communications The Communication Awards are designed to recognize, promote, and encourage effective communication of science, engineering, medicine, and/or interdisciplinary work within and beyond the scientific commu- nity. Each year the Futures Initiative awards $20,000 in prizes to those who have ­ dvanced the public’s understanding and appreciation of science, a e ­ngineering, and/or medicine. The awards are given in four categories: books, film/radio/TV, magazine/newspaper, and online. The winners are honored during a ceremony in the fall in Washington, DC.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES KECK FUTURES INITIATIVE ix NAKFI cultivates science writers of the future by inviting graduate students from science writing programs across the country to attend the conference and develop IDR team discussion summaries and a conference overview for publication in this book. Students are selected by the depart- ment director or designee, and prepare for the conference by reviewing the webcast tutorials and suggested reading, and selecting an IDR team in which they would like to participate. Students then work with NAKFI’s science writing student mentor to finalize their reports following the conferences. Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research Study During the first 18 months of the Keck Futures Initiative, the Academies undertook a study on facilitating interdisciplinary research. The study exam- ined the current scope of interdisciplinary efforts and provided recommen- dations as to how such research can be facilitated by funding organiza­ions t and academic institutions. Facilitating Interdisciplinary ­ esearch (2005) is R available from the National Academies Press (www.nap.edu) in print and free PDF versions. About the National Academies The National Academies comprise the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council, which perform an unparalleled public service by bringing together experts in all areas of science and technology, who serve as volunteers to address critical national issues and offer unbiased advice to the federal government and the public. For more information, visit www. nationalacademies.org. About the W. M. Keck Foundation Based in Los Angeles, the W. M. Keck Foundation was established in 1954 by the late W. M. Keck, founder of the Superior Oil Company. The Foundation’s grant making is focused primarily on pioneering efforts in the areas of Science and Engineering Research; Medical Research; Under­ graduate Education; and Southern California. Each grant program invests in people and programs that are making a difference in the quality of life, now and in the future. For more information, visit www.wmkeck.org.

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x THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES KECK FUTURES INITIATIVE National Academies Keck Futures Initiative 100 Academy, 2nd Floor Irvine, CA 92617 949-721-2270 (Phone) 949-721-2216 (Fax) www.keckfutures.org

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Preface At the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative Conference on ­The Informed Brain in a Digital World, participants were divided into fourteen interdisciplinary research teams. The teams spent nine hours over two days exploring diverse challenges at the interface of science, engineering, and medi- cine. The composition of the teams was intentionally diverse, to encourage the generation of new approaches by combining a range of different types of contributions. The teams included researchers from science, engineering, and medicine, as well as representatives from private and public funding agencies, universities, businesses, journals, and the science media. Researchers repre- sented a wide range of experience—from postdoc to those well established in their careers—from a variety of disciplines that included science and engineer- ing, medicine, physics, biology, economics, and behavioral science. The teams needed to address the challenge of communicating and working together from a diversity of expertise and perspectives as they a ­ ttempted to solve a complicated, interdisciplinary problem in a relatively short time. Each team decided on its own structure and approach to tackle the problem. Some teams decided to refine or redefine their problems based on their experience. Each team presented two brief reports to all participants: (1) an interim report on Friday to debrief on how things were going, along with any special requests; and (2) a final briefing on Saturday, when each team: • Provided a concise statement of the problem; • Outlined a structure for its solution; xi

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xii PREFACE • Identified the most important gaps in science and technology and recommended research areas needed to attack the problem; and • Indicated the benefits to society if the problem could be solved. Each IDR team included a graduate student in a university science writing program. Based on the team interaction and the final briefings, the students wrote the following summaries, which were reviewed by the team members. These summaries describe the problem and outline the approach taken, including what research needs to be done to understand the funda- mental science behind the challenge, the proposed plan for engineering the application, the reasoning that went into it, and the benefits to society of the problem solution. Due to the popularity of some topics, two or three teams were assigned to explore the subjects. Six podcasts were launched throughout the summer to help bridge the gaps in terminology used by the various disciplines. Participants were ­encouraged to listen to all of the podcasts prior to the November conference.

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Contents Conference Summary 1 IDR TEAM SUMMARIES Team 1: Develop innovative curricula that will help students develop expertise in dealing with the information overload they will encounter during and after their schooling. IDR Team Summary, Group A, 11 IDR Team Summary, Group B, 15 Team 2: Develop methods to efficiently design and measure the efficacy of Internet teaching technologies. 21 Team 3: Define the trajectory, value, and risk of Extreme Lifelogging when nearly everything about a person is in Cyberspace. 29 Team 4: Indentify the ways in which the Internet positively and negatively impacts social behavior. 39 IDR Team Summary, Group A, 41 IDR Team Summary, Group B, 46 xiii

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xiv CONTENTS Team 5: Develop a new approach to assess the differences in cognitive and brain function between the brains of digital natives and digital immigrants. 51 IDR Team Summary, Group A, 53 IDR Team Summary, Group B, 59 IDR Team Summary, Group C, 63 Team 6: Determine how the effects of the digital age will improve health and wellness. 69 IDR Team Summary, Group A, 73 IDR Team Summary, Group B, 77 Team 7: What are the limits of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) and how can we create reliable systems based on this connection? 81 IDR Team Summary, Group A, 82 IDR Team Summary, Group B, 87 IDR Team Summary, Group C, 92 APPENDIXES List of Podcast Tutorials 99 Agenda 101 Participants 105 To listen to the podcasts or view the conference presentations, please visit our website at www.keckfutures.org.