mance interaction thrust investigates the effects of the interaction of cognitive load and physical and cognitive stress on the soldiers and on their performance.

3. Translational neuroscience. As Army operations enter battlefields that are more dynamic and complex, it will become increasingly critical to build translational capability into the design and development of systems that capitalize on the soldier’s neurocognitive abilities to meet the demands of these environments, ensuring mission effectiveness and maximizing soldier survivability. The goal of the translational neuroscience thrust is to enable system designs that are consistent with brain function, taking into account its limitations and exploiting its potentials, to maximize soldier performance.

4. Social-cognitive network science. The soldier on the modern battlefield is increasingly part of a network of humans and machines in rich communication with one another. Decision making is increasingly distributed and dispersed. This reality poses a set of questions about presentation and consumption of information that is the domain of the social-cognitive network science thrust area. These human and human-machine questions are related to questions about the structure and function of networks more generally. Consequently, the primary discussions of this thrust area will be found in the chapters of this report that discuss the Computational and Information Sciences Directorate and crosscutting research areas.

5. Human-robot interaction. An increasing number of unmanned, robotic systems with various degrees of autonomy are being fielded. Humans need to control these devices and to plan their activities. In addition, humans receive and interpret input from robotic devices. Optimal (or even merely adequate) use of these devices requires an understanding of human-robot interactions. Such interactions were reviewed as part of the autonomous systems enterprise work within the Vehicle Technology Directorate. Accordingly, this research thrust is examined in the chapter covering the autonomous systems enterprise.

6. Human-systems integration (HSI). The human-systems integration thrust assesses the ability of soldiers to work with new systems prior to their deployment. Much of this work is HRED’s contribution to the Manpower and Personnel Integration (MANPRINT) program, a formal Army program with the goal of ensuring that most if not all human dimensions are accounted for in the design, development, procurement, and life cycle management of all Army materiel systems. A leading HSI tool for MANPRINT work is IMPRINT (the Improved Performance Research Integration Tool), a modeling system based on discrete event simulation. IMPRINT is one of several tools used by HRED to produce early, cost-effective evaluation of constraints that can inform the determination of requirements for new systems.

7. Opportunity-driven human factors research. HRED scientists have the expertise to address novel problems and questions as they arise in the field. The opportunity driven research thrust is the home for research directed at specific problems faced by soldiers in the field or by equipment development programs. Opportunity driven research is typically customer funded and occurs throughout HRED.

8. Simulation and training technology. Simulation and training technology is a major laboratory program with five research areas: adaptive and intelligent training technologies, synthetic environments, immersive learning, training applications, and advanced distributed simulation. Training applications are domain-specific research areas and include medical, dismounted soldier, and ground platform training. The laboratory’s primary physical location is in Orlando, Florida, and it has a strong relationship with the Institute for Creative Technology at the University of Southern California.

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