its postdoctoral program to attract personnel trained in needed areas and providing continuing education of SLAD personnel through broader collaborations in academia and other DoD institutions. One avenue for accomplishing these objectives might exist through the National Research Council postdoctoral program, of which ARL is a member. SLAD should encourage and incentivize more personnel to pursue advanced degrees (M.S., Ph.D., and post-degree sabbaticals) in relevant areas. Partnering with the Army Research Office to fund programs, including 6.1 research and multi-university research initiatives (MURIs), in areas of interest to SLAD would help in training and recruiting personnel. Establishing centers of excellence in universities could also help to provide relevant training and experience to personnel already working in SLAD.

To ensure recognition of SLAD as a leader in the research, test, and analysis community, its personnel should document their work in open literature publications. SLAD has begun to publish a few peer-reviewed publications, but publication should become a more standard practice at SLAD. Publication in scientific or technical peer-reviewed journals provides traditional independent evidence of the rigor, efficacy, currency, correctness, and technical quality of the work that would define SLAD as a leader in innovative test and analysis tool development methodology.


During the past 8 to 10 years the the ARLTAB has identified many concerns regarding the development of System-of-Systems Survivability Simulation (S4) software code. The need for analyses of systems of systems is real, and elements of the tools and models that support such analyses are lacking—in particular, analyses of engineering and technology used to accomplish the generation, processing, and exchange of information that produces desired coherent behavior of units and formations. These analyses require varying levels of fidelity and detail; taken together, they need to represent the dynamics of combat between opposing forces, including movement, fires, consumables, command and control, and communications. Current combat models, for example COMBAT XXI or OneSAF, produce detailed traces of the combat process and dynamics on digital terrain. These traces include instantiations of tactics, techniques, and procedures as well as command and control and communications. In general they do not provide high-fidelity representations of physical processes, such as path losses or protocols used in network communication. Higher-fidelity representations are needed to properly carry out systems analyses focused on identifying and responding to deficiencies in connectivity or capacity, dynamic management of bandwidth, or the performance of algorithms that process and act on sensed data. However, that higher fidelity is not needed throughout the complete space for system-of-systems analysis; in fact, there is a tradeoff between fidelity and analytic efficiency.

SLAD can make contributions to system-of-systems analysis. Whereas past designs for survivability focused on improving armor recipes, designs now encompass passive and active armor and countermeasures, managed in real time by onboard information networks. In the near future, designs will include cooperative survivability among groups of vehicles Collection, processing, and exchange of information will be key processes, integrated to perform real-time decision making and employment of effectors. SLAD logically has responsibility for analyzing such systems of systems from the perspective of physics and engineering. In the case of ballistic vulnerability, SLAD was provided with the tactical context in which rounds were launched and impacted on a vehicle. So, too, in the case of emerging system-of-systems survivability suites SLAD should turn to agencies such as TRAC that focus on and excel at tactical and operational analysis and modeling for context and combat dynamics, including tactics, techniques, procedures, and operational employment. To be effective, SLAD should carefully bound its

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