Marine. After World War II, Dr. Colgate returned to Cornell University completing his B.S. and Ph.D. in nuclear physics, taking up a position as a postdoctoral fellow at Berkeley. In 1952, he moved to Livermore National Laboratory where he performed the diagnostic measurements for the nuclear tests of the hydrogen bomb, just developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He was responsible for the design and execution of the “fast nuclear diagnostics, (gamma rays, neutrons, and x-rays)” of the “Bravo” test, 15 Mega Ton equivalent yield, including a dozen vacuum pipe lines 2 miles long. Later, he served as the scientific advisor to the State Department during the test ban negotiations in Geneva where he proposed the mutual need for the detection of nuclear testing in space by use of spy satellites. The surprising Soviet acceptance of this concept pre-dated “peristrika.” Dr. Colgate went on to serve as president of New Mexico Tech from 1965 to 1974 where he also conducted research in astrophysics and atmospheric physics. He became an adjunct professor at New Mexico Tech, moving to Los Alamos National Laboratory where he currently continues work in astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. Dr. Colgate is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science; he is a member of the American Astronomical Society and the American Meteorological Society among others; and he was a founding board member of the Santa Fe Institute. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Charles R. Cushing is president of C.R. Cushing & Co., Inc., a firm of naval architects, marine engineers, and transportation consultants with offices in New York and Europe. He has been responsible for the design and/or construction of over 250 ocean-going vessels in the United States, Europe, and the Far East. Specifically, he has directed the concept, preliminary, and contract design; strategic planning; plan approval; and supervision of construction of vessels from tankers and container ships to bulk carriers and passenger ships. His work has included new construction, conversion, repair, and refurbishment of vessels. Dr. Cushing has been directly responsible for risk analyses, safety audits, energy audits, and the preparation of the U.S. Coast Guard’s Tankerman’s Manual. He has designed intermodal shipping containers and a myriad of container handling equipment, and he holds a number of patents in maritime and intermodal technology. For 26 years he has taught a course “Ship Acquisition” and for 7 years “Maritime Casualty Investigation” at the United Nation’s World Maritime University. For 12 years he has served on the final selection committee of the National Shipbuilding Research Program which sponsors and funds naval and commercial shipbuilding research in the United States. Dr. Cushing has served on scientific boards and advisory committees, and he is a former member of the NRC’s Marine Board as well as a current member of the Naval Studies Board. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received his Ph.D. in maritime studies from the University of Wales Aberystwyth.

Susan Hackwood is executive director of the California Council on Science and Technology (CCST) and professor of electrical engineering at the University of California, Riverside, where her research interests include electrical engineering, signal processing, cellular robotic systems to name just a few. CCST is a not-for-profit corporation comprised of 150 top science and technology leaders sponsored by the key academic and federal research institutions in California, and it advises the state on all



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