to Children, “action is essential” to control advertising to children (WHO, 2006).

•   In 2008 the International Food and Beverage Association issued a set of international pledges stating that companies adhering to the pledges would not market certain products to children under 12 (IFBA, 2008).

•   The International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO) and Consumers International released a report in 2008 titled Recommendations for an International Code on Marketing of Foods and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children (IASO-CI, 2008).

•   Following up on those recommendations, WHO (2012) issued the report A Framework for Implementing the Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children.

•   A United Nations high-level meeting on noncommunicable diseases held in 2011 cited the WHO recommendations on food and drink marketing to children (WHO, 2006) in its Political Declaration, which was followed up in 2012 by an advisory document on how to implement the recommendations (WHO, 2012).

•   In 2011 the Pan American Health Organization issued the report Recommendations from a Pan American Health Organization Expert Consultation on the Marketing of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children in the Americas (PAHO, 2011).

Country Actions

Actions by particular countries have been less dramatic than the above policy statements and reports, according to Lobstein, but some actions have been notable:

•   Since the 1990s, Sweden and the province of Quebec in Canada have had a ban on all promotions of any products to young children, although cross-border marketing has been a problem.

•   In 2006 the United Kingdom formulated a ban on high-fat, -sugar, and -salt foods advertised on children’s television programming. The ban included a definition of such foods that acts, in effect, as a statutory definition of junk food. More recently, this ban has been extended to other media, including websites.

•   Ireland has introduced proposals similar to those in the United Kingdom, with the exception that the advertising of cheese would still be permitted.

•   France has banned vending machines in all state schools and has required statements such as “eat more fruits and vegetables” in food ads in all media.

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