have changed purchasing behaviors and companies’ attitudes toward reformulation.

Reflections

Lobstein offered several reflections based on his work in this area:

•   Countries are moving toward consensus on the definition of junk food, as demonstrated by the legally established definition in the United Kingdom.

•   Consensus also is building on what leads to behavior change, with the recognition that much decision making is noncognitive and not rational.

•   No method exists to “immunize” children against the impact of advertising, given its subconscious effects on behavior. Media literacy is not a defense against exposure.

•   Discussion of the rights of children could be extended to the protection of children from commercialization, which is an approach that could attract support from church and community groups.

“Things have moved quite a lot outside of the United States, both in policies and regulatory practices.” —Tim Lobstein



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