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are essential in capitalizing on 18 years of international investments in ISTC activities.

As the ISTC experiment comes to an end in Russia, a new phase of cooperation should be developed and become even more successful. The current trend is to emphasize cooperation in rapid development of biotechnology capabilities of interest to organizations in both countries. But such an effort can only be successful if buttressed by strong basic research capabilities in the two countries, as discussed in Chapter 10.

In principle, bilateral cooperation organized by individual scientists on their own is certainly possible and highly desirable. In the ideal case, these scientists should need to rely only on their partners in the other country for facilitative services, e.g., arrangement of visas, travel, working areas, and so on. Of course, the interested U.S. and Russian partners must have the necessary financial resources and must be prepared to work within the confines of export control and other international agreements and national laws that define constraints on cooperation.

Three observations are offered concerning the facilitating of cooperative research activities, following the closing of the ISTC office in Moscow. The need for different types of arrangements will depend on the extent to which the U.S. and Russian governments, and to a lesser extent nongovernmental entities, finance cooperative activities.

1.   The two governments have science-oriented diplomats at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow and the Russian Embassy in Washington, and they can at times help facilitate cooperative science activities.

2.   In Chapter 10, a recommendation of the committee to establish a new bilateral Research Fund is presented. The fund should take on responsibility for supporting implementation of the grants that it awards—a modest but still important task.

3.   The working group on impediments of the Science and Technology Working Group of the BPC will presumably continue to improve implementation procedures of the two countries and could give special attention to adjusting to the aftermath of the ISTC.

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