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Appendix C.1 Department of State Overarching Goal in Russia and Elsewhere: Work with governments and other stakeholders to build sustainable capacity for biosecurity, biosafety, disease surveillance, and cooperative scientific research. 1. Recent History of Department’s Interests in Biosecurity Activities in Russia • Support of Nunn-Lugar Initiative: 1991 • Biological Arms Control Activities: 1992 (continuation of earlier activities) • Policy/Program Direction of International Science and Technology Center (ISTC): 1994 • Biotechnology Engagement Program: 1999 • BioIndustry Initiative: 2002 • Bioengagement Program: 2006 to present 2. Results of Emergency Appropriation of $30 million for BioIndustry Initiative Focused on Collaboration with Russia • Conversion of Sibbiopharm facility in Berdsk to commercial produc- tion of animal feed premixes, biopesticides, and enzymes for alcohol production. • Provision of U.S. government collateral guarantees for repayment of Russian bank loans to small Russian biotech enterprises. • Expanded U.S. interactions with components of the Biopreparat com- plex through the new organization TEMPO. • Support for commercialization-oriented activities at a number of Rus- sian research institutes, including the upgrading to GLP and GMP standards. 141
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142 APPENDIX C.1 • Support for influenza surveillance in Siberia. 3. Current Russia-related Activities of Special Interest • Implications of planned withdrawal of Russia from ISTC: 2015 • Transfer of Russian components of ongoing bioengagement programs to Russian ownership, including responsibility for funding. • Facilitation of connections of Russian scientists with international community. • Encouragement of Russian support for broad international adoption of international biosecurity standards and guidelines. • Development of long-term bioengagement strategy. 4. Lessons Learned from Bioengagement Activities with Russia and Other Countries • Developing deep and broad relationships is critical. • Partner government endorsement of engagement activities is essential. • Communication strategies should focus on importance of public health capacity-building. • Some states may be skeptical of U.S. objectives in promoting engage- ment activities. 5. Future for U.S.-Russia Partnership • Identify new mechanisms for partnerships following Russia’s with- drawal from the ISTC. • Continue to jointly develop biological safety standards and programs in countries and regions of mutual interest. • Support U.S. partnerships with Russian institutes for carrying out on a highly selective basis collaborative research and development activities. • Collaborate to develop an open and transparent culture of responsibil- ity among dual-use scientists. • Strengthen detection and control of infectious diseases through collaboration. SOURCE: Information provided by Department of State, October 2011 and July 2012.