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the matching contributions by Russian institutions or costs of administering the grants program.

2.   Few agencies break out budgets for the life sciences. Indeed, the breadth of the life sciences is often underestimated, given the increasing convergence of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and material sciences with biology.

3.   Agencies sometimes have budgets for international activities but do not break out biology-related aspects of international activities, nor do they separate proposed budgets for U.S.-Russian engagement as distinct from activities involving other countries as well.

4.   When accounting for costs of international programs, agencies seldom include the costs incurred by government employees who oversee specific international programs on a full-time or part-time basis.

5.   Many projects rely to a considerable extent on matching contributions by host institutions, and these costs are simply absorbed by the host institutions as overhead. (See, for example, Box I-1.) In some cases, the financial contributions of host institutions have exceeded external grants directed to the same projects by a factor of 10.

6.   U.S. contracts and grants awarded to Russian institutions or individuals do not include indirect costs as discussed above.

7.   Excellent statistics are maintained by the ISTC, but even they do not include matching costs by Russian institutions, indirect costs, or the funds provided to the U.S. collaborators for their participation.

Box I-1
Costs of Collaboration Absorbed by
Russian State Research Center Vector

Because of the need to fulfill international grant commitments, Vector, for example, (a) tripled its energy and water consumption at its own expense for a few years, (b) spent additional funds on materials and reagents, (c) purchased personal protection equipment, (d) redirected internal funds to support engineering personnel, and (e) provided funding for joint publications after grant funding had been expended.

SOURCE: Former Scientific Leader of Vector, June 2012.

STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT

Four dimensions of bioengagement that provide the framework for the report are (1) enhancement of security, (2) advancement of science, (3) applications of scientific findings, and (4) contributions of science in addressing problems of



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