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global and regional interest. The objectives of engagement in these four overlapping areas include the following:

1.   Improve security by helping to (a) reduce the risk of proliferation of potentially dangerous biological agents and expertise in the two countries to irresponsible governments or to groups with hostile intentions and (b) prevent bioterrorism, at home and in other countries strengthening response capabilities should bioterrorism attacks occur.

2.   Increase U.S. and Russian contributions to the advancement of science, and particularly to improvement of the knowledge base for understanding fundamental scientific issues.

3.   Develop programs that apply existing scientific capabilities to address public health, agricultural, and environmental issues, including (a) utilization of the results of research and (b) contributions in responding to the needs of the general populations for better and cheaper products, technical information, and specialized services that are developed or provided by governments.

4.   Contribute to resolving global and regional issues, wherein understanding the biological dimensions is critical in developing appropriate approaches by the two countries and the international scientific community more broadly.

The report begins with a discussion of the importance of bioengagement. After considering examples of activities related to each of the four objectives set forth above, the report addresses positive impacts and shortcomings of activities. It then considers impediments to cooperation and lessons learned during bilateral cooperation in recent years. An important chapter is devoted to the strategic, financial, and organizational aspects of bioengagement, with special attention devoted to sustaining existing programs that have high payoffs while developing a new approach to deepening involvement of the best scientists in the two countries in collaborative efforts. The report concludes with a presentation of three major recommendations of the committee that reflect the importance of bioengagement in general, and strengthened international networks of researchers in particular, in the years ahead.

A number of appendixes are included in the report. They discuss the interests and activities of U.S. and Russian sponsors of bioengagement, the types of cooperation supported by a number of Russian institutions, and examples of bioengagement programs that have been successful. They underscore the broad reach of bioengagement and help set the stage for consideration of future activities.

CONSULTATIONS AND RELATED REPORTS

In preparing this report, committee members and staff carried out consultations with many dozens of organizations and individuals in Russia and the United States concerning their experiences in designing and implementing past bilateral



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