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programs. Of comparable importance were their visions of future approaches and of methods for improving program implementation. These organizations and individuals have been particularly helpful in providing details that are included in the events highlighted throughout the report. A few specialists from other countries were also consulted. Appendix A.3 identifies some of the key organizations that provided information to the committee during preparation of this report.

During the late 1990s and the 2000s, the National Academies prepared a number of reports on U.S.-Russian scientific relations in general, and cooperation in the life sciences in particular. These reports are identified in Appendix A.2. Many other relevant observations are included in books of well-qualified observers, compendiums of activities prepared by other organizations, international journals, and news outlets. A few of these sources that were of particular help in preparing this report are also identified in Appendix A.2. Unfortunately, there have been very few authoritative publications prepared jointly by U.S. and Russian organizations or authors, which have focused explicitly on U.S.-Russian bilateral engagement, and particularly on the future of this relationship in the biological sciences. This report should assist in filling that gap.

That said, the most important source of information for the report has been the observations of the committee members themselves, who have personally observed development and implementation of many aspects of bioengagement during recent years.

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