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Appendix F.2

Russian Research Personnel and Funding

A: TRENDS IN RESEARCH PERSONNEL

Doctorate Degrees Awarded in Selected Fields

  2000 2005 2011
Chemistry 127   94   79
Biology 278 269 207
Agriculture 131 119   79
Medicine 855 793 580
Veterinary   26   43   33

Kandidat Degrees Awarded in Selected Fields

  2000 2005 2011
Chemistry 664 678 767
Biology 1,333 1,462 1,242
Agriculture 354 781 529
Medicine 3,429 4,794 2,854
Pharmacy   86 105   89
Veterinary 199 222 183


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OCR for page 227
Appendix F.2 Russian Research Personnel and Funding A: TRENDS IN RESEARCH PERSONNEL Doctorate Degrees Awarded in Selected Fields 2000 2005 2011 Chemistry 127   94   79 Biology 278 269 207 Agriculture 131 119   79 Medicine 855 793 580 Veterinary  26  43  33 Kandidat Degrees Awarded in Selected Fields 2000 2005 2011 Chemistry   664   678   767 Biology 1,333 1,462 1,242 Agriculture   354   781   529 Medicine 3,429 4,794 2,854 Pharmacy    86   105    89 Veterinary   199   222   183 227

OCR for page 227
228 APPENDIX F.2 Researchers with Advanced Degrees (all fields) 2000 2005 2010 Doctorate 21,949 23,420 26,789 Kandidat 73,962 76, 018 70,325 Personnel Involved in Research and Development Total: 839,992 Researchers: 442,071 State Sector: 33% Industrial Sector: 48% Higher Ed. Sector: 19% B: RUSSIA’S R&D EXPENDITURES 2000 2005 2010 $10.8 billion $18.1 billion $32.8 billion Source of Funds (2010): (For comparison) Government Industry Other Internal International Russia 70% 25% 0.5% 3.5% U.S. 27% 67% 6% Expenditure of Funds (2010): (For comparison) Government Industry Higher Education Nonprofit Russia 31% 61% 8% U.S. 10% 73% 13% 4% SOURCE: Indicators of Science: 2012, Statistical Index, Higher School of Economics, Moscow.