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Researchers with Advanced Degrees (all fields)

  2000 2005 2010
Doctorate 21,949 23,420 26,789
Kandidat 73,962 76,018 70,325

Personnel Involved in Research and Development


Total: 839,992 Researchers: 442,071
 
State Sector: 33% Industrial Sector: 48% Higher Ed. Sector: 19%

B: RUSSIA’S R&D EXPENDITURES


2000 2005 2010

$10.8 billion $18.1 billion $32.8 billion

Source of Funds (2010): (For comparison)

  Government Industry Other Internal International
Russia 70% 25% 0.5% 3.5%
U.S. 27% 67% 6%  

Expenditure of Funds (2010): (For comparison)

  Government Industry Higher Education Nonprofit
Russia 31% 61% 8%  
U.S. 10% 73% 13% 4%

SOURCE: Indicators of Science: 2012, Statistical Index, Higher School of Economics, Moscow.



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