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Box 2-5
Examples of Institutes Where Physical Security Upgrades Were Installed

•   State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector, Koltsovo

•   State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk

•   All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology, Bolshie Vyazemy

•   Federal Center of Toxicological and Radiation Safety, Kazan

•   Federal Center for Animal Health, Vladimir

•   Plant of Biopreparations, Pokrov

    SOURCE: Russian senior science manager, 2011.

•   Increase physical security at Russian facilities where dangerous pathogens were stored and/or used for research and related purposes. Dozens of projects were implemented. (See Box 2-5 for examples of the Russian facilities that were involved.)

•   Support research and related activities that would utilize the skills of the Russian workforce, and particularly the skills of former defense scientists, to strengthen the basic and applied research infrastructures of Russia. This support was substantial and extended into pilot production of medical and agricultural-related items. (See Appendixes C.1, C.2, C.3, and C.4 for examples of activities.)

•   Carry out consultations and related activities concerning disease surveillance capabilities and outbreaks of infectious diseases of regional and global concern. Both countries had extensive surveillance capabilities in place. The cooperation was directed in large measure to rapid and reliable diagnostics, synchronization of surveillance approaches among different countries and with the World Health Organization (WHO), and standardization and distribution of surveillance data.

The focus of cooperative biosecurity programs involving a number of U.S. and Russian organizations gradually broadened. The two sides agreed that the best way to reduce the likelihood and consequences of misuse of dangerous pathogens—whether naturally occurring or illicitly obtained by malcontents— was to strengthen the overall public health system of Russia and the supporting scientific infrastructure. The emphasis was on development of approaches that would assist in the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and therapy of infectious diseases, whatever the sources of the diseases.

The joint activities that evolved covered a broad swath of projects. From the outset, cooperative research projects were high on the priority list. Initially, there

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