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Box 4-10
Cooperation in Continuing Medical Education

With funding from public and private sources, the American College of Physicians, in cooperation with medical education institutions in 13 regions of Russia, has sent 50 highly qualified American physicians to Russia during a 15-year period, where they have interacted with almost 10,000 Russian physicians. This service has increased the capabilities of the Russian physician community to manage serious diseases and reduce premature mortality. The program has also supported travel by 13 groups of Russian physicians to the United States for exchanges of experience.

SOURCE: American College of Physicians, 2011.

terns that emerged during the economic downturn in Russia. Now the economic situation is different. The character of the bilateral relationship needs adjustment to cost-sharing arrangements if the concept of joint partnerships for mutual benefit is to become widespread.

Both countries are interested in attracting foreign investors in development of products that can help support economic growth while providing cheaper and better products for sale locally and throughout the world. However, the levels of Russian investments in the biological sciences in the United States and of U.S. investments in Russia are quite small, although they are important in setting the stage for more ambitious efforts. They have often demonstrated a level of mutual interest in developing stronger commercial ties.

The governments are working together to encourage foreign investment in both directions by improving the legal and economic frameworks for foreign companies to conduct business in the respective countries. At long last, the issue of membership for Russia in the World Trade Organization has been resolved, and the commercial playing field has to a large degree been leveled. Intensification of engagement activities of companies from both countries is becoming more realistic. An interesting example of commercial engagement is set forth in Box 4-11.

Looking forward, the private sector needs to be a key player in spurring the transition of Russia toward a knowledge-based economy while enabling the United States and other countries to engage more effectively with the latent high-technology expertise in Russia. The Russian government is counting on state-owned firms to play an important role in this transition. As a starting point, several hundred state-owned firms are to provide 5 percent of their sales to support R&D activities in Russia. However, Russian skeptics question whether these

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