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good. Indeed, frequently the same national officials have responsibilities for both bilateral and multilateral activities with similar objectives. Also, at times, the U.S. and Russian governments have decided to highlight their bilateral activities at international meetings. Then they usually take steps to ensure that other interested parties are aware of their activities before they publicly announce success stories. Set forth below are seven examples of bilateral activities with regional or global impacts.

1.   Leading the world in space biology. The global leadership of the U.S. and Soviet-Russian manned-space programs is unquestionable. The two countries have been pioneers in developing space biology for the past 50 years. Lessons learned from U.S.-Russian efforts are gradually spreading to other countries interested in exploration of space.

During the past decade, considerable attention has been focused on a future manned mission to Mars. At the same time, the immediate challenges of operating the international space station have required the constant attention of Russian and American doctors, researchers, and other medical professionals. Several joint activities being planned for the near future are set forth in Box 5-1.

2.   Addressing HIV/AIDS. Formal U.S.-Russian cooperation in addressing HIV/AIDS began in 1989 with a bilateral agreement between the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Shortly thereafter, the program was taken over by the National Institutes of Health and the Soviet

Box 5-1
Planned Joint Space Research Programs

•   Isolation and confinement studies as analogs for long-duration crewed missions. Research topics include crew behavior, group interactions, crew performance, microbiological and immunological investigations, and clinical-psychological studies.

•   Space radiation health studies, including risks of cancer, chronic tissue effects, acute radiation sickness, and changes in central nervous system functions.

•   Analyses of robotic precursor missions to address toxicity issues that could affect human health.

•   Russian free-flyer mission to address partial gravity and long-duration effects of microgravity on living systems.

SOURCE: NASA Headquarters, 2011.

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