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in Appendix F.4. The assessment can help officials and scientists worldwide to separate the scientific issues from the many other factors that influence decisions of governments concerning whether and under what circumstances to permit the use of this rapidly advancing technology. The academies have sent the scientific assessment to the International Research Council for consideration.

6.   Addressing polar interests. Even during the darkest days of the cold war, U.S. and Soviet specialists worked together to investigate conditions in Antarctica and occasionally coordinated investigations in the Arctic region. Both the United States and Russia now support research programs in these polar areas, even in times of tight budgets. The Arctic Council provides an intergovernmental framework for addressing issues, such as search-and-rescue operations, responding to oil spills, and licensing of exploration activities that target natural resources. A variety of governmental and nongovernmental research centers in the United States, Russia, and elsewhere help coordinate biological research activities of various countries in the Arctic and in Antarctica.

Highlighted in Boxes 5-6 and 5-7 are two activities wherein U.S. and Russian scientists have played prominent roles.

7.   Carrying out joint efforts in third countries. Both Russia and the United States have outreach programs to engage other countries in selected aspects of the biological sciences. Set forth in Boxes 5-8, 5-9, and 5-10 are examples of opportunities for the two countries to work together in supporting the development of biology-related activities in third countries.

Organizations that provide financial support for U.S. and Russian scientific efforts are increasingly aware of the rapid growth of global interests in biological research and biotechnology that have the potential for increasing the standard

Box 5-6
Circumpolar Scientific Observations in the Arctic

Building on a number of international projects carried out during the International Polar Year (2007–2009), the Arctic countries are now operating the Circumpolar Coastal Observatory Network with established reporting requirements. This network of institutions from all of the Arctic countries provides a framework for up-to-date observations of changes in the region due to climate shifts and more direct effects.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, 2011.

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