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Box 5-7
Assessing Effects of Black Carbon in the Arctic

Understanding and reducing the impacts of black carbon emissions that affect climate change and also the health of people in Arctic regions is a growing international concern. In response to the interest of the Arctic Council, the U.S. government has taken the initiative to engage Russian institutions in joint assessments of the emissions, circulation, and effects of black carbon. Inventories of sources, assessments of atmospheric transport and changes in the chemical composition of black carbon, and engineering approaches to mitigate emissions are among the many topics of interest. Current interest focuses on near-term assessments of the role of black carbon, with plans for long-term joint efforts in this field still evolving.

SOURCE: Department of State, March 2012.

Box 5-8
Eradicating Polio in Uzbekistan

Russian and American scientists played leading roles in the extensive efforts of the international community two decades ago to rid the world of polio. Unfortunately, polio still remains in small pockets of the world. The United States and Russia have committed to work together toward eradication of polio in Uzbekistan, although to date on-the-ground activities have been limited.

SOURCE: U.S.-Russia Protocol of Intent, 2011, and discussions with senior scientists in Russia, May 2012.

of living. Thus, in the years ahead, interest in bilateral cooperation on projects of global or regional significance should increase. Indeed, financial resources to support joint U.S.-Russian efforts may be more accessible if bilateral approaches to high-visibility topics are cast within a global framework, while retaining an emphasis on investigations of localized problems that are important components of overall international concerns.

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