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Russian and American specialists while also developing coherence of approaches within the region.

As to the Arctic, many common concerns provide a strong basis for cooperation in the area near the Bering Straits. Also, as climate change increasingly is recorded across the Arctic, the opportunities for expanding cooperation along the northern coastline of Russia are particularly important. Of special interest are technologies for effectively and economically converting biomass to new sources of energy, thereby reducing reliance on coal and other heavy polluting energy sources in snow-covered regions.

3.   The two governments have made a good start in joint efforts to limit the spread of tuberculosis and other devastating diseases in Russia and neighboring areas.

An important framework for promoting joint research and development efforts devoted to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and other difficult diseases was established in November 2011, with a forum in Moscow involving key agencies from the two countries. The U.S. private sector also played an unusually active role in promoting cooperation. The seriousness of many of the problems in Russia—and indeed throughout the world—is widely recognized. Now there is a considerable need for more aggressive collaborative research efforts. (See Appendix F.5.)

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