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The Unique U.S.-Russian Relationship in
Biological Science and Biotechnology


Committee on U.S.-Russia Bioengagement
Development, Security, and Cooperation
Policy and Global Affairs

                                    OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences

Washington, D.C.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

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Committee on U.S.-Russia Bioengagement Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. SLMAQM-10-GR-089 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of State. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13:  978-0-309-26980-3 International Standard Book Number 10:  0-309-26980-6 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; Internet, Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina- tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE ON U.S.-RUSSIA ASSESSMENT OF BIOENGAGEMENT: IMPACTS, LESSONS LEARNED, AND A PATH TOWARD FUTURE COLLABORATION Peter H. Raven (Co-Chair), Missouri Botanical Garden Valentin V. Vlassov (Co-Chair), Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences Kavita M. Berger, American Association for the Advancement of Science David R. Franz, Consultant Tatiana A. Gremyakova, International Science and Technology Center Oleg I. Kiselev, Institute of Influenza James W. LeDuc, Director, Galveston National Laboratory Sergey V. Netesov, Novosibirsk State University Peter Palese, Mount Sinai School of Medicine Richard L. Witter, U.S. Department of Agriculture (retired) Russ Zajtchuk, Chicago Hospitals International Sergey K. Zavriev, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Biorganic Chemistry Staff Glenn E. Schweitzer, National Research Council of the National Academies Rita S. Guenther, National Research Council of the National Academies Jacqueline Martin, National Research Council of the National Academies Patrick Ayscue, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow v

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Acknowledgments Tens of thousands of scientists and other specialists from the United States and Russia have participated in bilateral bioengagement activities in recent years. Their contributions to science, security, public health, agricultural productivity, environmental protection, and other important areas that sustain life have been profound. The committee is grateful for the opportunity to prepare a report on their contributions to society. The committee is particularly appreciative of the insights provided specifically for this report by many officials, scientists, and program managers who participated in the activities or witnessed their imple- mentation in the two countries. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Olga Borisova, U.S. Embassy, Moscow; Alexander Gabibov, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry; Chaitan Khosla, Stanford University; Andrey Kitashov, Lomonosov Moscow State University; Diana Pobedinskaya, Peoples Friendship University of Russia; Matthew Rojansky, Carnegie Endowment for vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS International Peace; and Amy Smithson, James Martin Center for Nonprolifera- tion Studies. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or rec- ommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Edwin Przybylowicz, Eastman Kodak Company (retired). Appointed by the National Academies, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were care- fully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents Summary 1 Introduction 11 1 Importance of U.S.-Russian Bioengagement 23 2 Ensuring Appropriate Use of Biological Assets 39 3 Advancing the Frontiers of Biological Research 51 4 Application of Science in the Public and Private Sectors 61 5 Programs with Regional and Global Reaches 73 6 Impacts of Bilateral Programs and Projects 93 7 Impediments in Carrying Out Approved and Funded Collaborative Projects 91 8 Lessons Learned 101 9 Strategies and Coordination 109 10 Recommendations for Future Bioengagement 115 ix

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x CONTENTS Appendix A  Available Resources 123 A.1 Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 125 A.2  Relevant Reports of National Academies, Books, and Other Publications 131 A.3 Organizations Consulted 135 Appendix B  Examples of U.S.-Russian Agreements of Special Relevance for Bioengagement 137 Appendix C  Activities in Bioengagement of Selected U.S. Government Departments and Agencies 139 C.1 Department of State 141 C.2 Defense Threat Reduction Agency 143 C.3 Department of Energy 151 C.4 Department of Health and Human Services 157 C.5 National Institutes of Health 169 C.6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 173 C.7 National Science Foundation 177 C.8 U.S. Agency for International Development 179 C.9 Environmental Protection Agency 183 C.10 Agricultural Research Service 185 C.11 Fish and Wildlife Service 189 Appendix D  Interest of Selected Russian Research Institutions with Active Bioengagement Programs 191 D.1 State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, Vector 193 D.2 All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology 195 D.3 Research Institute of Influenza, 197 D.4  Selected Institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 199 Appendix E  Activities of Other Organizations 205 E.1 Bilateral Presidential Commission 207 E.2 International Science and Technology Center 209 E.3 Skolkovo Foundation and Innovation Center 217 E.4 Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology 219 E.5 Rusnano and Other Russian Investors 221

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CONTENTS xi Appendix F  Other Topics of Interest 223 F.1  U.S.-Russian Joint Peer-Reviewed Articles, Reviews, and Conference Proceedings 225 F.2 Russian Research Personnel and Funding 227 F.3 Russia’s Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Sectors 229 F.4  Assessment of Developments in Agrobiotechnology in the United States and Russia 233 F.5 Scientific Forum for Biomedical and Behavioral Research 239 F.6 Funding and Related Mechanisms 243

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