Fish Invertebrates Reptiles Birds Mammals Plants and habitats
Urbanized areas Transmission Transportation Built-up areas
Restricted areas Fairways and shipping lanes Dumping sites Cable areas Pipeline areas Shoreline constructions Wreck points Mooring and warping points Recreation areas and access locations (boat ramps, diving sites, marinas) Management areas (marine sanctuaries, national parks, wildlife refuges, special management areas) Cultural heritage sites (archaeological sites, historical sites)
Resource extraction sites (Aquaculture sites, commercial fisheries, recreational fishing)
SOURCE: Adapted from Defne et al., 2011.
recreational sailing, scenic views, and rare species. Including these values explicitly in the cost-benefit analysis may result in a different decision about MHK sites than if only the energy sector is considered (NOAA, 2011b).
Tools for MHK Site Planning
While full trade-off analyses (including benefits and costs) have rarely been used in ocean planning efforts to date, there are many decision support tools that can help assess trade-offs. They can be analyzed with