FINDING: OLEDs are still in their infancy. While the driver electronics may have many similarities to that of LEDs, there are some essential differences in their operating performance because of the large capacitive load presented by OLEDs.

FINDING: LED replacements for incandescent lamps may not work with all existing control infrastructure, especially dimmers.

RECOMMENDATION 4-3: Industry should develop standards for LED drivers and future generations of lighting controls that will ensure that all LEDs that are designated “dimmable” work well with all new dimmers in the future. In the meantime, SSL products should indicate on their labels that they may not function correctly with presently installed controls.

FINDING: Additional standards or revisions to standards are needed to resolve unknowns that will otherwise be left to consumers and other lighting decision makers to resolve, specifically test procedures and/or de-rating factors that account for higher temperature environments, where performance may vary from LM-79 data, and alternatives to LM-80 that can predict whole product life more accurately. In the case of the latter, research is under way to develop test procedures to predict whole product life more accurately.

RECOMMENDATION 4-4: (a) Manufacturers should publish data for photometric quantities and life per industry standards and de-rating factors for use in typical applications. (b) IESNA should develop a test procedure to predict whole product life more accurately. (c) ANSI should revise the color binning standard to ensure imperceptible color differences between two adjacent light sources.

FINDING: There are existing standards for THD and PF for electronic ballasts for linear fluorescent lamps, but at present there are no such residential standards for LED drivers that are external to the lamp. Standards for low-wattage, integrally ballasted CFLs with medium screw-bases in residential applications allow low PF and high THD.

RECOMMENDATION 4-5: For external solid-state lighting drivers in general, industry should adopt the same total harmonic distortion and power factor standards that are in place for electronic ballasts for linear fluorescent lamps. Industry should revisit the standards for low-wattage medium screw-base lamps to determine their impact on power quality before applying them for light-emitting diode lamps, and these standards should match those for commercial and industrial applications.

FINDING: The power requirements and flexible physical configurations of SSL make attractive the concept of a new dc building lighting infrastructure.

RECOMMENDATION 4-6: The SSL industry should collaborate with other industries such as building materials and construction to explore the challenges and potential benefits of developing and adopting standards for a new dc electrical infrastructure.


FINDING: Replacing incandescent or fluorescent lamps with LED lamps provides an opportunity to greatly reduce power load and increase lamp life. They can also turn on instantly and are able to dim. The market for these lamps will only expand as the light and color quality improve and the costs are reduced.

FINDING: The best LED applications take advantage of the directional light put out by LEDs, such as downlights, wall washers, and grazing and accent lighting.

FINDING: Omni-directional LED lamps are not as efficient as linear fluorescent lamps. In order to become a viable replacement alternative for linear fluorescent lamps, SSL products need to improve efficacy, become more omni-directional, and reduce initial cost in order to compete with fluorescent lamps.

FINDING: SSL must have power quality standards to mitigate against high THD, low PF, and repetitive peak current issues.

FINDING: New dimmers must be able to operate LED luminaires and lamps smoothly without perceptible flicker and should be available to dim from 100 percent power to 1 percent power.

FINDING: Industrial applications of SSL products will require higher light output for ambient lighting because of their use in high ceiling applications.

FINDING: Discomfort or disability glare can be an issue with directional LED luminaires. Luminaires must be designed so as not to increase glare potential compared to their HID counterparts.

FINDING: LED white light products produce light in spectral regions that may create environmental and health concerns. These concerns should be recognized in the design and application of LED luminaires.

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