FINDING: Exterior lighting is a prime candidate for early adoption of SSL because of the lower lighting levels required in such applications and the optical control, long life, and dimmability characteristics of SSL.

FINDING: Were OLEDs to become commercially viable, they would provide an opportunity to change the form factors of how luminaires are designed with smaller sizes, less material, and fewer physical constraints and offer an ability to change from traditional-looking luminaires to internally lighting surfaces and materials.

FINDING: Replacing existing incandescent lamps with LED lamps in existing luminaires may under certain conditions cause the LED to overheat. Examples include downlights adjacent to insulation or in enclosed luminaires. This is true also of the use of SSL in industrial applications having higher ambient temperatures. LED lamp heat management needs to be addressed for all such applications.

FINDING: Many LED lamps currently available do not have the same light output and color rendering properties as incandescent lamps. SSL products with improved light output that are color consistent from product to product will be needed for the public to readily accept these as replacements for incumbent lighting technologies.

FINDING: There is no standardized method for measuring the lifetime of SSL products.

FINDING: The CRI does not always yield results that predict or evaluate performance well, so manufacturers cannot rely on it to guide product development.


FINDING: To make LED-based luminaires and lamps at high efficacies (notionally those exceeding 150 lumens per watt) at prices lower than fluorescents, technological and manufacturing breakthroughs will be needed.

RECOMMENDATION 6-1: The Department of Energy should concentrate its funding on light-emitting diode core technology and fundamental emitter research that have the potential to lower costs of solid-state lighting products.

FINDING: There are currently no industry-accepted accelerated life tests for SSL products, which slows the development and deployment of new reliable products.

RECOMMENDATION 6-2: The Department of Energy should continue efforts to help develop accelerated life tests for luminaires and LEDs.

FINDING: The labels designed by DOE and FTC for lamp packages help consumers better understand the characteristics of the product they are purchasing, but important information is missing from the labels that would help consumers to better differentiate products and assign value to the products.

RECOMMENDATION 6-3: The Federal Trade Commission should conduct a study in 2014, 2 years after introduction of the label, to determine the effectiveness of the labeling and whether it could be improved by additions and/or changes.

FINDING: The move to new lighting is changing the entire vernacular used for lighting. It is going to be critical to label products in a clear way and educate retailers, consumers, lighting designers, and contractors on the opportunities and challenges with these new lighting technologies. To this end, EISA 2007 authorized $10 million a year to advance public awareness, but this money has not been appropriated.

RECOMMENDATION 6-4: The Department of Energy and lamp manufacturers and retailers should work together to ensure that consumers are educated about the characteristics and metrics of the new technology options.

RECOMMENDATION 6-5: The Environmental Protection Agency in conjunction with the Department of Energy should conduct a study to understand the environmental impacts of SSL and to determine potential disposal strategies, if necessary, that should be developed as SSL deployment develops.

FINDING: Without appropriate data on consumer lighting use, it is difficult to establish an appropriate baseline of energy use in lighting and benchmark energy lighting efficiency.

RECOMMENDATION 6-6: The Energy Information Administration should collect data on energy demand for lighting through the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, the Commercial Energy Consumption Survey, and the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. These efforts need to be pursued on a consistent basis and should consider adding questions that would increase the accuracy and usefulness of the data. In addition, detailed lighting market characterization based on nationally representative surveys, such as the 2001 Lighting Market Characterization from the Department of Energy, need to be pursued every 5 years. It would be helpful if these surveys are available before this study is updated in 2015.

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