A

Committee Biographical Information

JOHN G. KASSAKIAN (NAE), Chair, is professor of electrical engineering and former director of the Massachu setts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems. His expertise is in the use of electronics for the control and conversion of electrical energy, industrial and utility applications of power electronics, electronic manufacturing technologies, and automotive electrical and electronic systems. Prior to joining MIT, he served in the U.S. Navy. Dr. Kassakian is on the boards of directors of a number of companies and has held numerous positions with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), including founding president of the IEEE Power Electronics Society. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), a Life Fellow of the IEEE, and a recipient of the IEEE’s William E. Newell Award for Outstanding Achievements in Power Electronics (1987), the IEEE Centennial Medal (1984), and the IEEE Power Electronics Society’s Distinguished Service Award (1998). He has served on a number of National Research Council (NRC) committees, including the Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership and the Committee on Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies Improve Fuel Economy. He has an Sc.D. in electrical engineering from MIT.

INÊS AZEVEDO is the executive director of the Center for Climate and Energy Decision Making at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and an assistant research professor with CMU’s Department of Engineering and Public Policy. Dr. Azevedo’s research interests lie at the intersection of environmental, technical, and economic issues, such as how to address the challenge of climate change and to move toward a more sustainable energy system. In particular, Dr. Azevedo has been looking at how energy systems are likely to be shaped in the future, which requires comprehensive knowledge not only of the technologies that can address future energy needs but also of the decision-making process followed by different agents in the economy. Her dissertation looked at these issues as they relate to the development and deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies. Dr. Azevedo received her B.Sc. in environmental engineering from IST University in Portugual, her M.Sc. in engineering policy and management of technology from IST, and her Ph.D. from CMU in engineering and public policy.

NANCY E. CLANTON is founder and president of Clanton & Associates, a lighting design firm specializing in sustainable design. She is a fellow of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) and is a LEED-accredited professional. Ms. Clanton serves as chairperson for the IESNA Outdoor Environmental Lighting Committee, the IESNA/IDA Model Lighting Ordinance Task Force, and the IESNA Mesopic Committee. She is a past member of the board of directors of the International Association of Lighting Designers and the International Dark Sky Association. Additionally, she serves as a member of the advisory committee of Environmental Building News, the Professional Advisory Board for the Engineering Department at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and the U.S. Green Building Council. Ms. Clanton is a topic editor for the IESNA Lighting Handbook, 9th edition, and her committee was responsible for the production of the IESNA Recommended Practices on Outdoor Lighting. She was group leader for the “Greening of the White House” initiative and received the 1999 Contribution to the Built Environment Award from the Colorado North Chapter of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). In 2001 Ms. Clanton served as a final editor for the Advanced Lighting Guidelines written by the California Energy Commission. She speaks throughout the nation on topics relating to sustainable design, energy efficiency, and light pollution. Her firm’s lighting design projects reflect her sustainable philosophy, and 10 of their projects have been named to the AIA Committee on the Environment Earth Day Top Ten List. Projects for which Clanton & Associates designed the lighting are LEED rated, and several current projects are registered, certification pending. She obtained her bachelor of science degree in architectural engineering, illumination



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A Committee Biographical Information JOHN G. KASSAKIAN (NAE), Chair, is professor of elec- and deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies. trical engineering and former director of the ­ assachu­ etts M s Dr. Azevedo received her B.Sc. in environmental engineering Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory for Electro­ from IST University in Portugual, her M.Sc. in engineer- magnetic and Electronic Systems. His expertise is in the use ing policy and management of technology from IST, and her of electronics for the control and conversion of electrical Ph.D. from CMU in engineering and public policy. energy, industrial and utility applications of power elec­ tronics, electronic manufacturing technologies, and automo- NANCY E. CLANTON is founder and president of Clanton tive electrical and electronic systems. Prior to joining MIT, & Associates, a lighting design firm specializing in sustain- he served in the U.S. Navy. Dr. Kassakian is on the boards able design. She is a fellow of the Illuminating Engineer- of directors of a number of companies and has held numer- ing Society of North America (IESNA) and is a LEED- ous positions with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics accredited professional. Ms. Clanton serves as chairperson Engineers (IEEE), including founding president of the IEEE for the IESNA Outdoor Environmental Lighting Committee, Power Electronics Society. He is a member of the National the IESNA/IDA Model Lighting Ordinance Task Force, Academy of Engineering (NAE), a Life Fellow of the IEEE, and the IESNA Mesopic Committee. She is a past member and a recipient of the IEEE’s William E. Newell Award for of the board of directors of the International Association of Outstanding Achievements in Power Electronics (1987), the Lighting Designers and the International Dark Sky Associa- IEEE Centennial Medal (1984), and the IEEE Power Elec- tion. Additionally, she serves as a member of the advisory tronics Society’s Distinguished Service Award (1998). He committee of Environmental Building News, the Professional has served on a number of National Research Council (NRC) Advisory Board for the Engineering Department at the Uni- committees, including the Review of the Research Program versity of Colorado, Boulder, and the U.S. Green Building of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership and the Committee Council. Ms. Clanton is a topic editor for the IESNA Lighting on Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies Improve Fuel Economy. Handbook, 9th edition, and her committee was responsible He has an Sc.D. in electrical engineering from MIT. for the production of the IESNA Recommended Practices on Outdoor Lighting. She was group leader for the “Greening INÊS AZEVEDO is the executive director of the Center for of the White House” initiative and received the 1999 Con- Climate and Energy Decision Making at Carnegie ­ ellon M tribution to the Built Environment Award from the Colorado University (CMU) and an assistant research professor with North Chapter of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). CMU’s Department of Engineering and Public Policy. In 2001 Ms. Clanton served as a final editor for the Advanced Dr. Azevedo’s research interests lie at the intersection of Lighting Guidelines written by the California Energy Com- environmental, technical, and economic issues, such as how mission. She speaks throughout the nation on topics relating to address the challenge of climate change and to move to sustainable design, energy efficiency, and light pollution. toward a more sustainable energy system. In particular, Her firm’s lighting design projects reflect her sustainable Dr. Azevedo has been looking at how energy systems are philosophy, and 10 of their projects have been named to the likely to be shaped in the future, which requires comprehen- AIA Committee on the Environment Earth Day Top Ten sive knowledge not only of the technologies that can address List. Projects for which Clanton & Associates designed the future energy needs but also of the decision-making process lighting are LEED rated, and several current projects are followed by different agents in the economy. Her disserta- registered, certification pending. She obtained her bachelor tion looked at these issues as they relate to the development of science degree in architectural engineering, illumination 119

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120 ASSESSMENT OF ADVANCED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING emphasis, from the University of Colorado, Boulder, and she on and chaired many professional organizations and asso- is a registered professional engineer in the states of Colorado ciations and has extensive community service experience. and Oregon. Mr. DeCotis has published dozens of articles and profes- sional papers on energy and industry matters. He received WENDY DAVIS is an associate professor and director of his bachelor of arts in international business management the Illumination Design Program in the Faculty of Architec- from the State University College at Brockport, his master ture, Design and Planning at the University of Sydney. She of arts in economics from the University at Albany, and his previously (2004-2011) worked as a vision scientist in the M.B.A. in finance from the Sage Graduate School at Russell Lighting and Color Group at the National Institute of Stan- Sage College. dards and Technology (NIST). Dr. Davis’s research addresses lighting and color, with a particular focus on quality issues STEVEN P. DenBAARS (NAE) is a professor of materials in emerging and next-generation energy efficient lighting and co-director of the Solid State Lighting Center at the technologies. With a colleague at NIST she developed the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). Specific Color Quality Scale (CQS) to evaluate the color rendering research interests include growth of wide-bandgap semi- properties of light sources for general illumination. This conductors (GaN based) and their application to blue light- work led to her 2009 U.S. Department of Commerce Silver emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers and high-power electronic Medal Award for Scientific/Engineering Achievement for devices. This research has led to the first U.S. university “developing measurement methods and technical standards demonstration of a blue GaN laser diode. Dr. DenBaars has to accelerate the commercialization of energy-efficient, performed cost evaluations of LED technologies over the solid-state lighting products.” Dr. Davis chairs the Interna- past 23 years and is active in LED research and development tional Commission on Illumination (CIE) technical commit- as well as commercialization. He is also engaged in the inter- tee 1-69, “Colour Rendition by White Light Sources,” and is national SSL community. In 1994 he received an National a member of the IESNA Color Committee. She earned her Science Foundation (NSF) Young Investigator award. He has Ph.D. and M.S. degrees from the University of California, authored or co-authored more than 580 technical publica- Berkeley, in vision science and her B.A. in psychology and tions, 270 conference presentations, and 35 patents. Prior to physiology from the University of Minnesota. joining the faculty of UCSB, Dr. DenBaars was a member of the technical staff at Hewlett-Packard’s Optoelectronics PAUL A. DeCOTIS is vice president of power markets at Division, which was involved in the growth and fabrication Long Island Power Authority where he oversees strategic of visible LEDs from 1988-1991. In 2012 he was elected to resource planning; fuel, energy, and capacity purchases the National Academy of Engineering. He received a Ph.D. and sales; power project development and management; in electrical engineering and an M.S. in materials science and participation in the region’s wholesale power markets. from the University of Southern California (USC) and a B.S. Prior to this Mr. DeCotis was deputy secretary for energy in materials and metallurgical engineering from University in New York, serving as senior energy advisor to Governor of Arizona. Spitzer and Governor Paterson. He was also chair of the State Energy Planning Board and previously served as director of MICHAEL ETTENBERG (NAE) is managing partner at energy analysis for the New York State Energy Research and DOLCE Technologies, a company that commercializes tech- Development Authority where he oversaw corporate strategy nologies invented at leading universities, such as ­ rinceton P and planning, forecasting and analysis, and energy program and Columbia. He retired from Sarnoff Corporation (for- evaluation. Prior to this, Mr. DeCotis was chief of policy at merly RCA Laboratories) after 35 years, ending as senior the State Energy Office. Until his appointment as deputy vice president in charge of all of Sarnoff’s device research, secretary, he was president of a management consulting including a small silicon integrated circuit fabrication, TV business specializing in executive and board development, displays, optoelectronics, and cameras. Dr. Ettenberg was strategy, and mediation. Since 1985, he has served as an elected to membership in the National Academy of Engineer- adjunct faculty member at several colleges and universi- ing for his work on optoelectronic components, including ties, including Cornell University, Rochester Institute of the evolution of practical and reliable semiconductor lasers. Technology, and the Sage Graduate School at Russell Sage He also has extensive experience with III-V materials and College. Mr. DeCotis is a member of the NRC Board on optoelectronic devices. He developed the dielectric mirrors Energy and Environmental Systems, board member of U.S. used on all of today’s laser diodes. Dr. Ettenberg has pub- Offshore Wind Collaborative, board member of the Clean lished 110 papers and has been awarded 35 patents, mainly Energy States Alliance, editorial board member of the Energy in the area of optoelectronics. He also was president of the Efficiency Journal, executive committee member of the New IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society and was a member York State Reliability Council, New York’s representative of the Defense Science Board. He received his B.S. from the to the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council, and Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and his M.S. and Ph.D. a member of other boards and committees. He has served from New York University.

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APPENDIX A 121 STEPHEN FORREST (NAE) is the vice president for EVELYN L. HU (NAS/NAE) is the Gordon McKay Profes- research at the University of Michigan as well as the William sor of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering in the Gould Dow Collegiate Professor of Electrical Engineering Harvard University School of Engineering and Applied and Computer Science and professor in the Materials Science Sciences. Prior to her appointment at Harvard, Dr. Hu was and Engineering Department and the Physics Department. the scientific co-director of the California Nanosystems In 1985, Dr. Forrest joined the Electrical Engineering and Institute, a University of California, Los Angeles-UCSB Materials Science Departments at USC where he worked collaborative California Institute for Science and Innovation. on optoelectronic integrated circuits and organic semi­ Her research focuses on high-resolution fabrication of com- conductors. In 1992, he became the James S. McDonnell pound semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices, Distinguished University Professor of Electrical Engineer- candidate structures for the realization of quantum compu- ing at Princeton University. He served as director of the tation schemes, and novel device structures formed through National Center for Integrated Photonic Technology and the heterogeneous integration of materials. Recently her as Director of ­ rinceton’s Center for Photonics and Opto­ P work has involved the interaction of quantum dots in high Q electronic Mate­ials. From 1997 to 2001, he served as the r microdisk and photonic crystal cavities. Dr. Hu is a member chair of the Princeton’s Electrical Engineering Department. of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National In 2006, he rejoined the University of Michigan as vice presi- Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, dent for research. He is a fellow of the American Physical and the Academica Sinica. She is a recipient of the American Society (APS), IEEE, and the Optical Society of America Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Life- and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He time Mentor Award and was named an NSF Distinguished received the IEEE/Lasers Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Teaching Scholar. She was named the 2005 UCSB Faculty Distinguished Lecturer Award in 1996-1997, and in 1998 he Research Lecturer. She is a fellow of the IEEE, APS, and the was co-recipient of the IPO National Distinguished Inven- AAAS, and holds an honorary doctorate of engineering from tor Award as well as the Thomas Alva Edison Award for the University of Glasgow. From 1975 to 1981, Dr. Hu was innovations in organic LEDs. In 1999, Dr. Forrest received a member of technical staff at Bell Laboratories at Holmdel, the MRS Medal for work on organic thin films. In 2001, he New Jersey. From 1981 to 1984 she served as a supervisor was awarded the IEEE/LEOS William Streifer Scientific for VLSI patterning processes at Bell Laboratories at Murray Achievement Award for advances made on photodetectors Hill, New Jersey. In 1984 she joined UCSB as a professor of for optical communications systems. In 2006 he received electrical and computer engineering. She received her B.A. the Jan Rajchman Prize from the Society for Information in physics (summa cum laude) from Barnard College and Display for invention of phosphorescent organic light emit- her M.A. and Ph.D. in physics from Columbia University. ting diodes (OLEDs) and is the recipient of the 2007 IEEE Daniel Nobel Award for innovations in OLEDs. Dr. Forrest GARY MARCHANT is a professor of law and executive has authored approximately 465 papers in refereed journals director and faculty fellow of the Center for Law, Science, and has 203 patents. He is co-founder or founding participant and Innovation in the College of Law at Arizona State Uni- in several companies, including Sensors Unlimited, Epitaxx, versity (ASU). He is also a senior sustainability scientist Inc., Global Photonic Energy Corp., Universal Display at ASU’s Global Institute of Sustainability. Dr. Marchant Corp., and ASIP, Inc., and is on the board of directors of teaches environmental law, science and technology, ­genetics Applied Materials and PD-LD, Inc. Dr. Forrest received his and the law, and environmental justice. Prior to joining B.A. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, ASU, he was a partner at the Washington, D.C., office of the and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. law firm of Kirkland and Ellis, where his practice focused on environmental and administrative law. He received his PEKKA HAKKARAINEN is corporate vice president B.Sc. and Ph.D. in genetics from the University of British at Lutron Electronics. Dr. Hakkarainen has developed an C ­ olumbia, his M.P.P. from the Kennedy School of Govern- expertise in the performance of fluorescent and halogen ment of Harvard University, and his J.D. from Harvard Law lamps in dimming conditions as well as co-developed an School. integrated daylighting system involving electric lights and window shades. He is a member of IESNA and currently NADARAJAH NARENDRAN is director of research at the chairs the lighting Systems Division of the National Elec- Lighting Research Center (LRC) and professor in the School trical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). He has chaired of Architecture at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He several IESNA and NEMA committees and served on spearheads LRC’s SSL program with concentrated research numerous other industry committees and advisory groups. efforts in the areas of LED lighting performance, packag- Dr. Hakkarainen received his B.A. and M.A. in mathematics ing, and application. He is a fellow member of IESNA and from Cambridge University, England, and a Ph.D. in plasma organizes the Alliance for Solid-State Illumination Systems physics from MIT. and Technologies. He has been awarded the Taylor Technical Talent Award for Best Technical Paper from the IESNA and

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122 ASSESSMENT OF ADVANCED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING the Pew Teaching Leadership Award. Dr. Narendran received MICHAEL G. SPENCER is a professor of electrical engi- a B.S. in physics from the University of Peradeniya, Sri neering at Cornell University. His research interests are in the Lanka, and a Ph.D. and M.S. in physics from the University epitaxial and bulk growth of compound semiconductors, such of Rhode Island. as GaAs, SiC, and AlN, microwave devices, solar cells, and electronic materials characterization techniques (including MAXINE SAVITZ (NAE) is a retired general manager of deep level transient spectroscopy and photo­uminescence). l technology partnerships at Honeywell, Inc. Dr. Savitz is cur- Dr. Spencer’s particular interest has been in the correlation rently vice president of the National Academy of Engineer- of device performance with material growth and processing ing. She has managed large R&D programs in the federal parameters. His recent work has emphasized wide bandgap government and the private sector. Some of her positions materials, and his group was the first to produce conducting include the following: chief, Buildings Conservation Policy AlN and thick films of beta SiC grown by the bulk sublima- Research, Federal Energy Administration; professional tion technique. He is a recipient of the Presidential Young manager, Research Applied to National Needs, National Investigator Award (1985), the Alan Berman Research Science Foundation; division director, Buildings and Indus- Publication Award from the Naval Research Laboratories trial Conservation, Energy Research and Development (1986, for research leading to the first identification of a self Administration; deputy assistant secretary for conservation, interstitial defect in AlGaAs), the White House Initiative U.S. Department of Energy; president, Lighting Research Faculty Award for Excellence (1988), a distinguished visiting Institute; and general manager, Ceramic Components, scientist appointment at Jet Propulsion Laboratories (1989), A ­ lliedSignal, Inc. (now Honeywell). She has extensive tech- and a NASA Certificate of Recognition (1992). Dr. Spencer nical experience in materials, fuel cells, batteries and other is on the permanent committee for the Electronic Materials storage devices, energy efficiency, and R&D management. Conference and the Compound Semiconductor Confer- She is a member of the National Academy of Engineer- ence, and he also helped initiate and form the International ing and has been, or is serving as, a member of numerous Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials. He is public- and private-sector boards and has served on many one of the directors of the NSF-sponsored National Nano- energy-related and other NRC committees. She has a Ph.D. fabrication network. Dr. Spencer received his B.S., M.Eng., in organic chemistry from MIT. and Ph.D. from Cornell University.