general service fluorescent lamps. In addition, EPACT (92) added standards for some types of fluorescent and incandescent reflector lamps, provided funding for voluntary testing and consumer information programs for luminaries, and created an energy efficient commercial building tax deduction program, which includes lighting. The 1992 statute also set July 1994 as the deadline for states to adopt the lighting standards developed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE, 90.1 standards).
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 05), Public Law, 109-58, included performance standards for additional lighting products (e.g., energy saving fluorescent lamp ballasts) that had not been included in any of the previous legislation. It also provided for the establishment of labeling requirements for these products and preempted state standards for the same products. EPACT (05) also officially recognized and made more transparent the ENERGY STAR® program. Finally EPACT (05) expanded the tax deduction program for commercial building energy efficiency, originally enacted in EPACT (92).
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007) further amended EPCA (75) to include new provisions for lighting standards. EISA 2007 includes performance-based minimum efficiency standards for general service lamps, which will become progressively more stringent over time. General service lamps are classified as screw-based incandescent and fluorescent lamps and tubes; some specialty lamps were excluded from the standard. EISA also includes minimum efficiency standards for ballasts and lighting requirements for public buildings. Title III, Subtitle B, establishes definitions, standards, and amendments for lighting efficiency, and Section 321 defines energy efficiency standards for general service lamps. Table 2.1 shows the performance standards for lamps set by EISA 2007. The standard sets a maximum number of watts that a specified lamp (e.g., the so-called “A19 shape”) can use whose luminous output falls within a specified range. General service lamps outside this range are exempt from maximum rated wattage limits.
EISA 2007 also sets up standards for federal government buildings that will provide additional incentives for energy efficient lighting. The statute directs that total energy use in federal buildings be reduced 30 percent from a 2005 baseline by 2015. Moreover, the statute directs that every federal facility be subject to a comprehensive energy and water evaluation at least once every 4 years. Finally, new federal buildings and major renovations are required to reduce their energy use, relative to a 2003 baseline, by 55 percent in 2010 and by 100 percent (i.e., zero net energy3) by 2030. There were a number of attempts in the 112th Congress to roll back the requirements from EISA 2007 for lamps shown in Table 2.1, which culminated in a FY2012 appropriations rider prohibiting DOE from spending funds to enforce the standards stated in EISA 2007 for 2012. However, manufacturers plan to implement the 2012 standards nevertheless (Howell, 2011).
TABLE 2.1 Rated Lumen Ranges, Maximum Rated Wattages, and Effective Dates for General Service Lamps Goals in EISA 2007, Section 321
|Maximum Rated Wattage||Rated Lumen Ranges||Effective Date|
|72||1490-2600||January 1, 2012|
|53||1050-1489||January 1, 2013|
|43||750-1049||January 1, 2014|
|29||310-749||January 1, 2014|
NOTE: Minimum rated lifetime will be 1,000 hours in all cases.
The SSL Multi-Year Program Plan (DOE, 2011a) notes several efforts within DOE on advancing SSL technology, products, and the underlying science. These efforts occur within the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program; the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E); and the Building Technologies Program (BTP), which is within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The BES program supports fundamental research to provide the foundations for new energy technologies. Such work at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels in solidstate physics can lead to multiple applications, including for SSL technologies. One example is the support for the Solid-State Lighting Science Energy Frontier Research Center at Sandia National Laboratories. ARPA-E funds projects that are considered high risk but can potentially lead to high-payoff energy saving results if successful. Some projects funded by ARPA-E are directly related to SSL, such as the development of low-cost, bulk gallium nitride substrates and the development of advanced, energy efficient power supply technologies (DOE, 2011a).
The vast majority of the work on SSL technology at DOE takes place within EERE’s BTP. The BTP oversees the Emerging Technologies subprogram, which focuses on developing cost-effective advanced technologies in such areas as lighting, windows, and space heating and cooling for residential and commercial buildings (DOE, 2010; 2011b). Research across these different areas supports the residential and commercial building goal of reducing total energy use in buildings by up to 70 percent. One budget line under Emerging Technologies is Solid-State Lighting. The funding in recent years for this activity has been about $25 million per year, as delineated in Figure 2.1, of which roughly $9 million was directed toward R&D in FY2011. Most recently, the FY2012 appropriation is $25.83 million for lighting R&D, but specifies that $12 million of that total
3 A “zero net energy” building utilizes no net energy from the electrical grid through a combination of reducing overall use of energy (e.g., highly efficient lighting and HVAC technologies) and on-site production of renewable energy (e.g., wind or solar).