BOX 1.1
Statement of Task

The National Research Council (NRC) will appoint a committee to carry out this study and provide a report on the status of advanced solid-state lighting (SSL), in particular light-emitting diodes and organic light-emitting diodes. The report will provide an assessment of the current status of development of SSL products, a discussion on the future impacts of SSL, and a consideration of the study’s implications for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies. Specifically, the committee will focus on the following three overarching tasks.

(1) Review the Development ot SSL Technology and Products

The committee will assess:

•   Past and current cost evaluations for SSL In relation to traditional lighting technologies;

•   The status of SSL research, development, demonstration and commercialization in the US.;

•   Potential barriers to development and the prospects for overcoming them;

•   The status of SSL activities Internationally and thell Implications for the manufacturing of SSL technologies In the US;

•   The cost, lifetime, reliability, and consumer satisfaction aSSOCiated with SSL for both Indoor and outdoor lighting appllCJtlons and how these factors compare to traditional lighting technologies (Incandescent, fluorescent, and high Intensity discharge);

•   The market-based performance attributes necessary for SSL based on revi ew of on-going activities.

(2) Discussion ot SSL Future Impacts

The committee will estimate:

•   The tl me line for the commerCialization of SSL (and other POSSI ble technologies) that could replace current I nCJndescent and halogen Incandescerlt lamp technology and meet the minimum standards requllej In Section 321 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007;

•   The barriers to widespread adoption of SSL technologies and strategies needed to overcome these barriers;

•   The benefits for consumers If SSL development and deployment IS sucoessful and the I mpact If these barriers are not fully overcome, partlcu larly as It relates to the new minimum efficiency standard taking effect;

•   Potential Unintended consequences of SSL deployment, such as presented by traffic lights uSing SSL lamps that did not generate enough heat to melt Ice that bUilt up on them.

(3) Study Implicalions

The committee will analyze:

•   Lessons from the experience with the commerCialIZation of compact fluorescent lighting and how that may affect potential proactive Initiatives by the Department of Energy and other agencies (with legislative dllectlon, such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTCI); and

•   Recommendations to the Department of Energy on research, development, and deployment activities, and potential collaborations with market partiCipants, espeCially manufacturers.

The committee will provide a report to the U.S. Department of Energy, the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate. As mandated by Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, the NRC could also provide an updated report by July 31, 2015.

With these tasks in mind, the NRC established the Committee on Assessment of Solid State Lighting (Appendix A) composed of diverse experts in the fields of solid-state lighting, lighting design, human perception of light, industry commercialization, and policy to address the statement of task. In conducting this study, the committee members relied on their own expertise as well as many interactions with experts in the field (Appendix B).


Americans are used to purchasing their lamps (i.e., light bulbs) as a function of the rating in watts (and “watt equivalents”), a unit denoting the rate at which energy is produced or consumed. Intuitively, most people understand how much light a 40 W incandescent lamp provides compared to a 60 W or 75 W lamp. As the technological options for lighting shift

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