Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force
Facilities Using Industrial Processes

A Workshop Summary

Gregory Eyring, Rapporteur

Committee on Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes: A Workshop

Air Force Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes A Workshop Summary Gregory Eyring, Rapporteur Committee on Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes: A Workshop Air Force Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This is a report of work supported by Grant FA9550 12 1 0413 between the U.S. Air Force and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, or conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978 0 309 27023 6 International Standard Book Number 10: 0 309 27023 5 Limited copies of this report are Additional copies are available from: available from: Air Force Studies Board The National Academies Press National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, NW 500 Fifth Street, NW Keck 360 Washington, DC 20001 Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334 3111 (800) 624 6242 or (202) 334 3313 http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON ENERGY REDUCTION AT U.S. AIR FORCE FACILITIES USING INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: A WORKSHOP KENNETH E. EICKMANN, University of Texas at Austin ROBERT E. HEBNER, JR., University of Texas at Austin THOM J. HODGSON, North Carolina State University GWEN P. HOLDMANN, Alaska Center for Energy and Power CARROLL N. LeTELLIER, Independent Consultant JAMES B. PORTER, JR., Independent Consultant SCOTT E. SANDERS, Wyle Laboratories, Inc. Staff CARTER W. FORD, Program Officer DIONNA ALI, Senior Program Assistant MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator v

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AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD GREGORY S. MARTIN, GS Martin Consulting, Chair BRIAN A. ARNOLD, Raytheon Company CLAUDE M. BOLTON, Defense Acquisition University STEVEN R.J. BRUECK, University of New Mexico THOMAS J. BURNS, Science Applications International Corporation FRANK CAPPUCCIO, Cappuccio and Associates, LLC DONALD C. FRASER, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (retired) MICHAEL J. GIANELLI, The Boeing Company (retired) DANIEL HASTINGS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. ROBERT LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates NANCY LEVESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARK LEWIS, IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute LESTER L. LYLES, The Lyles Group MATT L. MLEZIVA, Wildwood Strategic Concepts C. KUMAR N. PATEL, Pranalytica, Inc. GERALD F. PERRYMAN, JR., Independent Consultant RICHARD V. REYNOLDS, The VanFleet Group, LLC J. DANIEL STEWART, University of Tennessee REBECCA A. WINSTON, Winston Strategic Management Consulting Staff TERRY J. JAGGERS, Director JESSICA R. BROKENBURR, Financial Assistant SARAH M. CAPOTE, Research Associate GREGORY EYRING, Senior Program Officer CARTER W. FORD, Program Officer CHRIS JONES, Financial Manager MARGUERITE E. SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Program Officer vi

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Preface The Air Force recognizes that energy is a strategic issue for the United States. To assist the Air Force in addressing this issue, the Air Force Studies Board (AFSB) of the National Research Council (NRC) drafted terms of reference (TOR) in April 2012 for a short workshop to bring together Department of Defense stakeholders and representatives of industry in order to highlight current approaches to industrial process energy with a goal of highlighting potential ways to reduce Air Force industrial process energy consumption.1 The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Energy, Kevin Geiss, approved the TOR in April 2012 and the NRC approved the TOR in July 2012. The NRC then established the Committee on Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes: A Workshop to conduct a workshop, and the 3 day workshop was held on November 5 7, 2012. The committee appreciates the support of Dr. Kevin Geiss, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Energy, who articulated a clear set of objectives for the workshop, and that of his staff. In addition, the committee thanks the many expert speakers and guests who contributed immensely to this undertaking. Finally, the committee’s role was limited to planning the workshop. This workshop summary has been prepared by the workshop rapporteur as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. Kenneth E. Eickmann, Chair Committee on Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes: A Workshop 1 Since 2006 the AFSB has produced several reports related to Air Force energy consumption, including the following, published by the National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.: A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs (2006); Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft (2007); and Examination of the U.S. Air Force’s Aircraft Sustainment Needs in the Future and Its Strategy to Meet Those Needs (2011). All are available at www.nap.edu. vii

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Daniel E. Hastings, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Gwen P. Holdmann, Alaska Center for Energy and Power, Mark J. Lewis, IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute, Lawrence T. Papay, PQR, LLC, James B. Porter, Jr., Independent Consultant, Maxine L. Savitz, Honeywell, Inc. (retired), and Rebecca A. Winston, Winston Strategic Management Consulting. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views presented at the workshop, nor did they see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Wesley L. Harris, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the author and the institution. viii

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Contents OVERVIEW 1 1 INTRODUCTION 5 Industrial Process Energy, 5 Energy Reduction Goals and Mandates, 7 Water Consumption Goals and Mandates, 9 Workshop Terms of Reference, 10 Workshop Structure, Scope, and Approach, 11 2 PRESENTATIONS AND COMMENTS 12 Monday, November 5, 2012, 12 Kevin Geiss, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Energy, 12 Joseph Sikes, Director of Facilities Energy Privatization, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment, 13 Paul Bollinger, Director, Boeing Energy, 14 Col Douglas Wise, Chief, Civil Engineering Operations and Readiness Division, HQ AFMC/A7O, 15 Col Stephen Wood, Vice Commander, 72nd Air Base Wing, Tinker Air Force Base, 16 Kirk Rutland, Technical Director, Test Sustainment Division, Arnold Engineering and Development Complex, 17 Cameron Stanley, Support Contractor, Advanced Power Technology Office, Air Force Research Laboratory, 17 Concluding Discussion, 18 Tuesday, November 6, 2012, 18 Robert Gemmer, Technology Manager Advanced Manufacturing Office, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy, 18 Thomas Hicks, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Energy, 19 Sandrine Schultz, Energy Program Manager, Navy Installations Command, 20 ix

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John Dwyer, Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, Army Materiel Command, 21 Timothy Unruh, Program Manager, Federal Energy Management Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy, 21 Al Hildreth, Company Energy Manager, General Motors North America, 22 James B. Porter, Jr., Independent Consultant, 23 Roger Weir, Energy Manager, ATK Aerospace Systems, 23 Kenneth Walters, Chief, Measurement and Analysis Division, Air Force Civil Engineer Center–Energy, Air Force Materiel Command, 24 Col Stephen Wood, Vice Commander, 72nd Air Base Wing, Tinker Air Force Base, 25 Wednesday, November 7, 2012, 25 Col Gregory Ottoman, Chief, Environment and Energy Division, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, Installations, and Mission Support, 25 3 WRAP UP DISCUSSION 27 Management and Leadership, 27 Budgets and Funding, 28 Information Resources, 29 Metrics, 31 Culture Change, 33 Personnel and Training, 34 Investment Opportunities, 34 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 37 B Workshop Agenda 41 C Workshop Participants 45 D Presentation Abstracts 49 E Energy Management Checklist 57 x

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Acronyms and Abbreviations AFB Air Force Base AFIT Air Force Institute of Technology AFMC Air Force Materiel Command AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory AFSC Air Force Sustainment Center ALC Air Logistics Complex AMC Army Materiel Command AMO Advanced Manufacturing Office AMRS advanced meter reading system APTO Advanced Power Technology Office Btu British thermal unit CE civil engineering CII Construction Industry Institute DoD U.S. Department of Defense DOE U.S. Department of Energy EISA Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 EO Executive Order EPACT Energy Policy Act of 2005 ESPC Energy Savings Performance Contract FEMP Federal Energy Management Program FY fiscal year GM General Motors HVAC heating, ventilation, air conditioning IPE industrial process energy MAJCOM Major Command xi

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MW megawatt MWh megawatt hour NRC National Research Council O&M operations and maintenance POM Program Objective Memorandum PV photovoltaic R&D research and development R&M restoration and maintenance UESC Utility Energy Service Contract USAF U.S. Air Force WAGES water, air, gas, electricity, steam xii