use by 10 percent from 2006, but this goal has not been met due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. There are expected to be new initiatives on reducing fuel use in aviation in this Program Objective Memorandum (POM) cycle.

Ottoman argued that the metrics for measuring energy intensity may be appropriate for office buildings but are not appropriate for addressing industrial process energy. Also, base utility bills are in the “must pay” category. Commanders and managers know that they will get the money necessary to pay them—which reduces the incentive for reducing consumption. The Air Force believes that it is in relatively good shape in meeting its goals for reducing water consumption and expanding renewable energy. However, there is a recognition that decisions regarding energy and environmental projects continue to be made on an ad hoc basis, which leads to suboptimization. For example, the Air Force has leased land at Nellis Air Force Base on which a contractor has built a photovoltaic (PV) electricity system, ostensibly to meet renewable energy and energy security goals for the base. However, the PV electricity is not connected to the base, but instead goes directly to the grid, and there does not appear to be funding available or the right incentives to make the connection to the base. Technology tends to be applied where it can be applied, as opposed to where it should be applied. Ottoman stated that there needs to be a macro model that could lead to a more holistic approach to energy and environmental decision making throughout the Air Force.

Much of the discussion following this presentation revolved around the issue of fragmented decision making and suboptimization. One participant commented that DuPont’s energy initiatives also started as scattered and ad hoc efforts, and only coalesced into a coherent program over time. The Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Energy has only been in existence for about 2 years, with a small staff and minimal contractor support. The biggest concern may be the lack of visibility of energy issues at headquarters outside of the civil engineering community. There are no “blue-suit” logisticians; leadership is needed to address process energy. Several participants asserted that energy use must be translated into cost in order to influence the acquisition community.

Several workshop participants also commented on issues related to metering. Metering will provide quicker and more accurate data on energy consumption to managers. The Empire State Building in New York City was renovated several years ago and meters were installed. Businesses located in the building competed to reduce their electricity consumption. The lesson was that energy use should not be viewed as an isolated island—there is a whole community involved. Other comments related to funding for submetering, which will be needed in order to tackle industrial process energy. Submetering would have to be funded by maintenance accounts rather than civil engineering accounts. However, meters would not have to remain indefinitely at a single site. It should be possible to save money by moving meters around from site to site in order to verify the value of investments as part of a research and development process.

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