Appendix E

Energy Management Checklist

This document is intended to be used as a checklist for walk-through energy efficiency audits and assessments.

Steam Generators and Heat Transfer Fluid Heaters and Vaporizers

■  Use Fuel Flow/Air Flow Control with Oxygen Trim

■  Maintain Excess Oxygen Below 5%, Below 8% for Stokers

■  Reduce Stack Temperature to 330°F for Sulfur Bearing Fuels

■  Minimize Combustibles in Stack Gas and Ash

■  Burn the Lowest Cost Fuel

■  Apply the “Utilized Cost” of Coal

■  Minimize the Use of Stabilizing Fuel If It Is Expensive

■  Burn Non-hazardous Wastes in Boilers or Vaporizers

■  Check Casing and Flue Gas Ducts for Air In-leakage

■  Optimize the Soot Blowing Schedule

■  Keep Internal Tube Surfaces Free From Deposits

■  Check Boiler/Vaporizer Efficiency Regularly

■  Recycle Wastewater Streams for Ash Sluicing

■  Split Range Control of Fan Speed and Dampers

■  Control Oil Tank Temperature at Minimum

■  Automate Boiler Blowdown

■  Install Blowdown Heat Exchanger

■  Optimize Load Sharing Between Boilers and Vaporizers

■  Operate Boiler Feed Pumps at Minimum Discharge Pressure

■  Check Feedwater Heaters for Efficient Heat Transfer

■  Reduce Deaerator Vent to <O.1% Water Flow or <0.5% Steam Flow

■  Keep Steam Pressure and Temperature at Maximum If System Has Turbines

■  Lower Steam Header Pressure If There Are No Turbines

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Appendix E Energy Management Checklist This document is intended to be used as a checklist for walk through energy efficiency audits and assessments. Steam Generators and Heat Transfer Fluid Heaters and Vaporizers Use Fuel Flow/Air Flow Control with Oxygen Trim Maintain Excess Oxygen Below 5%, Below 8% for Stokers Reduce Stack Temperature to 330°F for Sulfur Bearing Fuels Minimize Combustibles in Stack Gas and Ash Burn the Lowest Cost Fuel Apply the "Utilized Cost" of Coal Minimize the Use of Stabilizing Fuel If It Is Expensive Burn Non hazardous Wastes in Boilers or Vaporizers Check Casing and Flue Gas Ducts for Air In leakage Optimize the Soot Blowing Schedule Keep Internal Tube Surfaces Free From Deposits Check Boiler/Vaporizer Efficiency Regularly Recycle Wastewater Streams for Ash Sluicing Split Range Control of Fan Speed and Dampers Control Oil Tank Temperature at Minimum Automate Boiler Blowdown Install Blowdown Heat Exchanger Optimize Load Sharing Between Boilers and Vaporizers Operate Boiler Feed Pumps at Minimum Discharge Pressure Check Feedwater Heaters for Efficient Heat Transfer Reduce Deaerator Vent to OCR for page 57
Steam Users Eliminate or Find a Use for Vented Steam Install Jet Compressor to Make Low Pressure Steam Useful Shift Users to Lowest Header Pressure Possible Optimize Steam Balance with the Right Combination of Motors and Turbines Install Condensate Flash Tanks to Recover Low Pressure Steam Reduce Pressure of Heating Steam During Warmer Weather Use Turbines Instead of PRV's to Reduce Steam Pressure Adjust Steam Header Pressures to Maximize Turbine Work Close Turbine Hand Valves If Turbine Exhaust Must Be Vented, Vent Those Turbines to Atmosphere Install Smaller Turbine Nozzles Repair Steam Leaks Isolate Unused Steam Lines Eliminate Long Steam Lines with Low Flow Establish an Effective Steam Trap Maintenance Program Reduce Failed Steam Traps to <5% of Total Ensure Bypass Valve Around PRV's Is Not Leaking Return All Condensate Recover Waste Heat Wherever Possible Replace Steam Vacuum Jets with Mechanical Vacuum Pumps Be Sure Vacuum Jets Have the Correct Nozzle Size Operate the Minimum Number of Vacuum Jets Be Sure Vacuum Jets Have the Correct Steam Supply and Exhaust Check Actual Steam Consumption Against Design Check Turbine and Condenser Performance Regularly Keep All Steam, Dowtherm, and Condensate Lines Properly Insulated Provide New Heat Tracing as Electric, Not Steam Conduct a PINCH Technology Survey Electrical Loads Buy New High Efficiency Motors Instead of Rewinding Failed Motors Install High Efficiency Motors for New Applications Change to Smaller Motors on Lightly Loaded Drives Challenge the Need for Every Motor Running Use Variable Frequency Drives If Flow Rate/Load Varies Widely Use Daylighting Where Possible Remove Lamps Where Illumination Is More Than Is Needed Promote Turning Off Lights and PCs When Not In Use Use Photocells, Timers, or Motion Detectors to Operate Lights 58

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Replace Incandescent Lamps with Fluorescent, Sodium Vapor, or Metal Halide Fixtures Replace Safety Shower and Fire Alarm Incandescent Lamps with Compact Fluorescent Lamps Replace Fluorescent Ballasts and Lamps with High Efficiency Electronic Type Ballasts and T8 Lamps Request a Lighting Survey Clean Light Fixtures to Improve Efficiency/Light Levels Provide Electric Tracing Rather Than Steam Tracing Provide Controls on Self Limiting Electrical Tracing Maintain Heat Tracing Thermostats and Controls Do Not Provide Heat Tracing For Freeze Protection on Lines 6" or Larger Keep Electrical Equipment Cool Electrical Power Distribution Buy All Electricity Under One Contract Take Advantage of Utility Incentives for Demand Side Management Request an Interruptible Electrical Contract Have a Load Reduction Plan to Avoid Setting New Electrical Peaks Take Advantage of Utility Incentives for Demand Peak Shaving Use Diesel Generators to Shave Peaks Increase Turbine Generator Load to Shave Peaks Transfer Loads from Motors to Turbines to Shave Peaks Avoid Setting Peaks by Cycling Nonessential Equipment Run Nonessential Equipment and Batch Processes During Off Peak Hours Delay Starting Motors Until a New Peak Can Be Avoided Switch Large Motors Quickly to Avoid Setting a New Peak Install a Power Monitoring System to Enable Load Management Trend Plant Loads to Avoid Adding Unnecessary Distribution Equipment Analyze Power Usage to Identify Energy Reduction Opportunities Install Capacitors to Increase Power Factor Install Solar Photovoltaic Systems for Small Remote Loads Specify High Efficiency for New Power Transformers Refrigeration Allow Condenser Pressure to Drop With Reduced Cooling Water Temperature Control Condenser Pressure to Reduce Horsepower Vary the Hot Gas Bypass Control Set Point With Condenser Pressure Monitor Energy Consumption Per Ton to Detect Poor Machine Performance Increase Chilled Water Delta T Across Machines to Design Or Greater Values Maintain Proper Amounts of Refrigerant Charge 59

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Keep Condensers Clean Avoid Liquid Refrigerant Carryover Into Compressor Operate the Refrigeration Evaporator at the Highest Practical Temperature (Pressure) Minimize or Eliminate Air In Leakage to Refrigeration Machines Operate the Minimum Number of Refrigeration Machines for the Load Install Refrigeration Optimization Control System Optimize Brine System Concentration Install Thermal Storage to Shift Load Off Peak Use Absorption Refrigeration Driven by Low Level Heat Shift Loads From Chilled Water to Cooling Tower Water When Feasible Precool With Cooling Tower Water Before Applying Chilled Water Cooling Towers Run Minimum Number of Pumps Throttle Flow in Plant to Get the Design Delta T Across the Tower Select Fan Speed for Ambient Conditions Install Adjustable Pitch Fan Blades Maintain Correct Cycles of Concentration Maintain Tower Equipment to Run at Design Conditions Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Control Systems Use Exhaust Air to Heat or Cool Other Areas Balance Air Flows to Meet Actual Loads Ensure That Exhaust Flow Matches or Balances Conditioned Air Supply Ensure That Duct Work is Free of Obstructions Ensure That Terminal Diffusers and Ducts are Clean Keep Coils Clean Keep Air Filters Clean Keep Fans Clean Control Flow Through Air Washers Where Possible to Adiabatic Operation Repair or Replace Air Washer Nozzles That Do Not Atomize Properly Trim Impellers on Air Washer Pumps When Oversized or Install Smaller Impeller Make Sure Control Valves to Coils Completely Shut Off When Not in Use Make Sure Steam Traps on Heating Coils Function Make Sure Dampers on Coil or Air Washer Systems Close Completely Maximize Supply Air Temperature During Cooling Season and Minimize During Heating Season Minimize Control of Humidity Consistent with Personnel and Product Needs 60

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Minimize or Eliminate Heating and Cooling in Unoccupied Areas Install Thermostats on Interior Walls Calibrate and Eliminate Poor or Non performing Controls Install DDC Controls to Replace Pneumatic Controls Install HVAC Management System Utilize Water Side Cooling Tower Economizer Systems in Winter Where Possible to Replace Chilled Water Reduce Preheater Set Point Install Adequate Insulation on Chilled Water Systems Use Primary Secondary Circuits and Variable Flow Chilled Water Systems Where Applicable Replace Worn or Loose Belts on Fans Install Waste Heat Recovery Where Applicable Install or Switch to Variable Air Volume Air Distribution System Use an Infrared Survey to Locate Heat Loss Building Envelope Install Tight Sealing Doors and Windows to Minimize Infiltration Install Hanging Door Seals in High Traffic Areas Use Ceiling Fans to Eliminate Stratification of Air in High Ceiling Areas Install Adequate Building Insulation Install Roof Spray Systems to Minimize Heat Gain Utilize Advanced Window Treatments to Minimize Heat Gain Where Appropriate, Re Roof with Light Colored Roofing Materials Ventilate Attic Space Install Adequate Wall Insulation Insulate Partition Walls Between Conditioned and Unconditioned Spaces Keep Garage and Warehouse Doors Closed Use Self Closing Doors Recaulk Doors and Windows and Install Weather Stripping Replace Broken Windows Install Vestibules to Prevent Excessive Air Infiltration Close Abandoned Stacks Compressed Air kW/100 scfm Should Be <19 for 100 psi and <24 for 160 psi Intercool Between Compressor Stages Keep Intake Filters Clean Cool Air Intake Where Possible Monitor Stage Temperatures and Pressures to Detect Problems Use Inlet Guide Vanes for Control of Centrifugal Compressor Output 61

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Control Antisurge Valves with Flow Rather than Pressure Keep Antisurge Valves Closed Base Load Centrifugals and Carry Swings on Reciprocating Compressors Optimize Load Sharing Between Compressors Reduce the System Pressure to the Minimum Needed Use a Booster Compressor for Small High Pressure Loads Use Air Blower Instead of Compressed Air Do Not Use Compressed Air for Cleaning or Agitation Eliminate Air Trap Leakage Repair Air Leaks Shut Off Compressed Air to Equipment That Is Down Replace "Heatless" Air Dryers with "Heated Eliminate Pressure Regulators That Bleed Air Monitor Compressed Air Use to Detect Abnormal Changes Fans Use Adjustable Speed Drives Reduce Speed with Sheave Change to Minimize Damper Throttling Control Fan Output with Inlet Guide Vane Control to Reduce Throttling Loss Keep Fan Belts From Slipping Size Ductwork to Give Minimum Static Pressure Loss Minimize Duct Leakage Pumps Reduce System Pressure to Minimum Needed by the Users Substitute Gravity Flow Where Possible Use a Booster Pump for a Small High Pressure Demand Connect Heat Exchangers in Series to Reduce Cooling Water Flow Operate the Minimum Number of Pumps for the Load Install Smaller Impellers to Avoid Throttling Loss Maintain Pumps to Produce Design No Load Discharge Pressure Use a Variable Frequency Drive To Control Discharge Pressure General Reuse Water Wherever Possible Use Untreated Water Instead of Filtered Water Control Water Flow to Coolers and Condensers at Optimum Rate Keep All Instrumentation Calibrated Measure and Record All Utility Consumption and Analyze Performance and Trends 62

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Operate the Minimum Amount of Equipment to Satisfy System Loads Use DCS and Energy Optimization Systems to Control Efficiently Use All Utilities at the Most Economical Temperature and Pressure Optimize Piping Systems for Minimum Life Cycle Cost Isolate All Unused Energy Consuming Equipment Insulate Heated Tanks Use Suction Heaters Instead of Heating Entire Tanks Repair Hot Water Leaks Run Hot Water Heaters at Minimum Temperature Required Keep Heat Exchanger Surfaces Clean Purchase Only Energy Efficient Equipment Use Heat Pumps to Supply Hot Water and Refrigeration Operate Internal Combustion (I/C) Engines Only When Necessary 63

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