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Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes Appendix E Energy Management Checklist This document is intended to be used as a checklist for walk-through energy efficiency audits and assessments. Steam Generators and Heat Transfer Fluid Heaters and Vaporizers ■ Use Fuel Flow/Air Flow Control with Oxygen Trim ■ Maintain Excess Oxygen Below 5%, Below 8% for Stokers ■ Reduce Stack Temperature to 330°F for Sulfur Bearing Fuels ■ Minimize Combustibles in Stack Gas and Ash ■ Burn the Lowest Cost Fuel ■ Apply the “Utilized Cost” of Coal ■ Minimize the Use of Stabilizing Fuel If It Is Expensive ■ Burn Non-hazardous Wastes in Boilers or Vaporizers ■ Check Casing and Flue Gas Ducts for Air In-leakage ■ Optimize the Soot Blowing Schedule ■ Keep Internal Tube Surfaces Free From Deposits ■ Check Boiler/Vaporizer Efficiency Regularly ■ Recycle Wastewater Streams for Ash Sluicing ■ Split Range Control of Fan Speed and Dampers ■ Control Oil Tank Temperature at Minimum ■ Automate Boiler Blowdown ■ Install Blowdown Heat Exchanger ■ Optimize Load Sharing Between Boilers and Vaporizers ■ Operate Boiler Feed Pumps at Minimum Discharge Pressure ■ Check Feedwater Heaters for Efficient Heat Transfer ■ Reduce Deaerator Vent to <O.1% Water Flow or <0.5% Steam Flow ■ Keep Steam Pressure and Temperature at Maximum If System Has Turbines ■ Lower Steam Header Pressure If There Are No Turbines
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Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes Steam Users ■ Eliminate or Find a Use for Vented Steam ■ Install Jet Compressor to Make Low Pressure Steam Useful ■ Shift Users to Lowest Header Pressure Possible ■ Optimize Steam Balance with the Right Combination of Motors and Turbines ■ Install Condensate Flash Tanks to Recover Low Pressure Steam ■ Reduce Pressure of Heating Steam During Warmer Weather ■ Use Turbines Instead of PRV’s to Reduce Steam Pressure ■ Adjust Steam Header Pressures to Maximize Turbine Work ■ Close Turbine Hand Valves ■ If Turbine Exhaust Must Be Vented, Vent Those Turbines to Atmosphere ■ Install Smaller Turbine Nozzles ■ Repair Steam Leaks ■ Isolate Unused Steam Lines ■ Eliminate Long Steam Lines with Low Flow ■ Establish an Effective Steam Trap Maintenance Program ■ Reduce Failed Steam Traps to <5% of Total ■ Ensure Bypass Valve Around PRV’s Is Not Leaking ■ Return All Condensate ■ Recover Waste Heat Wherever Possible ■ Replace Steam Vacuum Jets with Mechanical Vacuum Pumps ■ Be Sure Vacuum Jets Have the Correct Nozzle Size ■ Operate the Minimum Number of Vacuum Jets ■ Be Sure Vacuum Jets Have the Correct Steam Supply and Exhaust ■ Check Actual Steam Consumption Against Design ■ Check Turbine and Condenser Performance Regularly ■ Keep All Steam, Dowtherm, and Condensate Lines Properly Insulated ■ Provide New Heat Tracing as Electric, Not Steam ■ Conduct a PINCH Technology Survey Electrical Loads ■ Buy New High Efficiency Motors Instead of Rewinding Failed Motors ■ Install High Efficiency Motors for New Applications ■ Change to Smaller Motors on Lightly Loaded Drives ■ Challenge the Need for Every Motor Running ■ Use Variable Frequency Drives If Flow Rate/Load Varies Widely ■ Use Daylighting Where Possible ■ Remove Lamps Where Illumination Is More Than Is Needed ■ Promote Turning Off Lights and PCs When Not In Use ■ Use Photocells, Timers, or Motion Detectors to Operate Lights
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Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes ■ Replace Incandescent Lamps with Fluorescent, Sodium Vapor, or Metal Halide Fixtures ■ Replace Safety Shower and Fire Alarm Incandescent Lamps with Compact Fluorescent Lamps ■ Replace Fluorescent Ballasts and Lamps with High Efficiency Electronic Type Ballasts and T8 Lamps ■ Request a Lighting Survey ■ Clean Light Fixtures to Improve Efficiency/Light Levels ■ Provide Electric Tracing Rather Than Steam Tracing ■ Provide Controls on Self-Limiting Electrical Tracing ■ Maintain Heat Tracing Thermostats and Controls ■ Do Not Provide Heat Tracing For Freeze Protection on Lines 6” or Larger ■ Keep Electrical Equipment Cool Electrical Power Distribution ■ Buy All Electricity Under One Contract ■ Take Advantage of Utility Incentives for Demand Side Management ■ Request an Interruptible Electrical Contract ■ Have a Load Reduction Plan to Avoid Setting New Electrical Peaks ■ Take Advantage of Utility Incentives for Demand Peak Shaving ■ Use Diesel Generators to Shave Peaks ■ Increase Turbine Generator Load to Shave Peaks ■ Transfer Loads from Motors to Turbines to Shave Peaks ■ Avoid Setting Peaks by Cycling Nonessential Equipment ■ Run Nonessential Equipment and Batch Processes During Off Peak Hours ■ Delay Starting Motors Until a New Peak Can Be Avoided ■ Switch Large Motors Quickly to Avoid Setting a New Peak ■ Install a Power Monitoring System to Enable Load Management ■ Trend Plant Loads to Avoid Adding Unnecessary Distribution Equipment ■ Analyze Power Usage to Identify Energy Reduction Opportunities ■ Install Capacitors to Increase Power Factor ■ Install Solar Photovoltaic Systems for Small Remote Loads ■ Specify High Efficiency for New Power Transformers Refrigeration ■ Allow Condenser Pressure to Drop With Reduced Cooling Water Temperature ■ Control Condenser Pressure to Reduce Horsepower ■ Vary the Hot Gas Bypass Control Set Point With Condenser Pressure ■ Monitor Energy Consumption Per Ton to Detect Poor Machine Performance ■ Increase Chilled Water Delta T Across Machines to Design Or Greater Values ■ Maintain Proper Amounts of Refrigerant Charge
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Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes ■ Keep Condensers Clean ■ Avoid Liquid Refrigerant Carryover Into Compressor ■ Operate the Refrigeration Evaporator at the Highest Practical Temperature (Pressure) ■ Minimize or Eliminate Air In-Leakage to Refrigeration Machines ■ Operate the Minimum Number of Refrigeration Machines for the Load ■ Install Refrigeration Optimization Control System ■ Optimize Brine System Concentration ■ Install Thermal Storage to Shift Load Off-Peak ■ Use Absorption Refrigeration Driven by Low Level Heat ■ Shift Loads From Chilled Water to Cooling Tower Water When Feasible ■ Precool With Cooling Tower Water Before Applying Chilled Water Cooling Towers ■ Run Minimum Number of Pumps ■ Throttle Flow in Plant to Get the Design Delta T Across the Tower ■ Select Fan Speed for Ambient Conditions ■ Install Adjustable Pitch Fan Blades ■ Maintain Correct Cycles of Concentration ■ Maintain Tower Equipment to Run at Design Conditions Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) ■ Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Control Systems ■ Use Exhaust Air to Heat or Cool Other Areas ■ Balance Air Flows to Meet Actual Loads ■ Ensure That Exhaust Flow Matches or Balances Conditioned Air Supply ■ Ensure That Duct Work is Free of Obstructions ■ Ensure That Terminal Diffusers and Ducts are Clean ■ Keep Coils Clean ■ Keep Air Filters Clean ■ Keep Fans Clean ■ Control Flow Through Air Washers Where Possible to Adiabatic Operation ■ Repair or Replace Air Washer Nozzles That Do Not Atomize Properly ■ Trim Impellers on Air Washer Pumps When Oversized or Install Smaller Impeller ■ Make Sure Control Valves to Coils Completely Shut Off When Not in Use ■ Make Sure Steam Traps on Heating Coils Function ■ Make Sure Dampers on Coil or Air Washer Systems Close Completely ■ Maximize Supply Air Temperature During Cooling Season and Minimize During Heating Season ■ Minimize Control of Humidity Consistent with Personnel and Product Needs
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Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes ■ Minimize or Eliminate Heating and Cooling in Unoccupied Areas ■ Install Thermostats on Interior Walls ■ Calibrate and Eliminate Poor or Non-performing Controls ■ Install DDC Controls to Replace Pneumatic Controls ■ Install HVAC Management System ■ Utilize Water-Side Cooling Tower Economizer Systems in Winter Where Possible to Replace Chilled Water ■ Reduce Preheater Set Point ■ Install Adequate Insulation on Chilled Water Systems ■ Use Primary-Secondary Circuits and Variable Flow Chilled Water Systems Where Applicable ■ Replace Worn or Loose Belts on Fans ■ Install Waste Heat Recovery Where Applicable ■ Install or Switch to Variable Air Volume Air Distribution System ■ Use an Infrared Survey to Locate Heat Loss Building Envelope ■ Install Tight Sealing Doors and Windows to Minimize Infiltration ■ Install Hanging Door Seals in High Traffic Areas ■ Use Ceiling Fans to Eliminate Stratification of Air in High Ceiling Areas ■ Install Adequate Building Insulation ■ Install Roof Spray Systems to Minimize Heat Gain ■ Utilize Advanced Window Treatments to Minimize Heat Gain ■ Where Appropriate, Re-Roof with Light Colored Roofing Materials ■ Ventilate Attic Space ■ Install Adequate Wall Insulation ■ Insulate Partition Walls Between Conditioned and Unconditioned Spaces ■ Keep Garage and Warehouse Doors Closed ■ Use Self Closing Doors ■ Recaulk Doors and Windows and Install Weather-Stripping ■ Replace Broken Windows ■ Install Vestibules to Prevent Excessive Air Infiltration ■ Close Abandoned Stacks Compressed Air ■ kW/100 scfm Should Be <19 for 100 psi and <24 for 160 psi ■ Intercool Between Compressor Stages ■ Keep Intake Filters Clean ■ Cool Air Intake Where Possible ■ Monitor Stage Temperatures and Pressures to Detect Problems ■ Use Inlet Guide Vanes for Control of Centrifugal Compressor Output
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Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes ■ Control Antisurge Valves with Flow Rather than Pressure ■ Keep Antisurge Valves Closed ■ Base Load Centrifugals and Carry Swings on Reciprocating Compressors ■ Optimize Load Sharing Between Compressors ■ Reduce the System Pressure to the Minimum Needed ■ Use a Booster Compressor for Small High Pressure Loads ■ Use Air Blower Instead of Compressed Air ■ Do Not Use Compressed Air for Cleaning or Agitation ■ Eliminate Air Trap Leakage ■ Repair Air Leaks ■ Shut Off Compressed Air to Equipment That Is Down ■ Replace “Heatless” Air Dryers with “Heated ■ Eliminate Pressure Regulators That Bleed Air ■ Monitor Compressed Air Use to Detect Abnormal Changes Fans ■ Use Adjustable Speed Drives ■ Reduce Speed with Sheave-Change to Minimize Damper Throttling ■ Control Fan Output with Inlet Guide Vane Control to Reduce Throttling Loss ■ Keep Fan Belts From Slipping ■ Size Ductwork to Give Minimum Static Pressure Loss ■ Minimize Duct Leakage Pumps ■ Reduce System Pressure to Minimum Needed by the Users ■ Substitute Gravity Flow Where Possible ■ Use a Booster Pump for a Small High Pressure Demand ■ Connect Heat Exchangers in Series to Reduce Cooling Water Flow ■ Operate the Minimum Number of Pumps for the Load ■ Install Smaller Impellers to Avoid Throttling Loss ■ Maintain Pumps to Produce Design No-Load Discharge Pressure ■ Use a Variable Frequency Drive To Control Discharge Pressure General ■ Reuse Water Wherever Possible ■ Use Untreated Water Instead of Filtered Water ■ Control Water Flow to Coolers and Condensers at Optimum Rate ■ Keep All Instrumentation Calibrated ■ Measure and Record All Utility Consumption and Analyze Performance and Trends
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Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes ■ Operate the Minimum Amount of Equipment to Satisfy System Loads ■ Use DCS and Energy Optimization Systems to Control Efficiently ■ Use All Utilities at the Most Economical Temperature and Pressure ■ Optimize Piping Systems for Minimum Life Cycle Cost ■ Isolate All Unused Energy Consuming Equipment ■ Insulate Heated Tanks ■ Use Suction Heaters Instead of Heating Entire Tanks ■ Repair Hot Water Leaks ■ Run Hot Water Heaters at Minimum Temperature Required ■ Keep Heat Exchanger Surfaces Clean ■ Purchase Only Energy Efficient Equipment ■ Use Heat Pumps to Supply Hot Water and Refrigeration ■ Operate Internal Combustion (I/C) Engines Only When Necessary
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