(USGBC, 2012). The intent is to allow owners or developers of 25 or more projects to achieve LEED certification for their projects faster and at a lower cost than through individual in-depth reviews.
The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI), established in January 2008, administers project certification for commercial and institutional buildings and tenant spaces for the LEED green building certification system and manages the USGBC’s professional credentialing program (Air Quality Sciences, 2009; GBCI, 2012). GBCI is an ANSI-accredited standards development organization.
Green Globes is a building environmental certification program that is based on the U.K. BREEAM and the related Canadian BREEAM system. The U.K. BREEAM was introduced in 1990 and claims to be:
The world’s foremost environmental assessment method and rating system for buildings, with 200,000 buildings with certified BREEAM assessment ratings and over a million registered for assessment since it was first launched in 1990 (BREEAM, 2012, p. 1).
BREEAM continues to be developed, with the most recent version released in 2008. The Building Research Establishment (BRE) continues to work to export the standard to different countries and to harmonize the certification requirements with those in other countries. For example, BRE signed a memorandum of understanding to work with the French CSTB (Centre scientifique et technique du bâtiment) to develop a pan-European building environmental assessment method.
The Canadian BREEAM was introduced in 1996 by the Canadian Standards Association (Green Globes, 2012). It was renamed Green Globes in 2000 and moved to an online assessment and rating process. For existing buildings, it is now overseen in Canada by the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA), while new construction standards are overseen by ECD Energy and Environment Canada Ltd. (a private, for-profit company).
In the United States, the GBI, a nonprofit organization, has owned the license for use of the Green Globes certification system since 2004. The GBI originally worked with the National Association of Home Builders on certifications but has expanded to include commercial and governmental buildings included in the Green Globes system. Initially, the conversion of the Canadian certification system to application in the United States involved changes to measurement units, regulatory references, and the number of certification categories.
GBI became an ANSI-accredited standards development organization and developed ANSI/GBI 01-2010, Green Building Assessment Protocol for Commercial Buildings, which is derived from, but is not the same as, the Green Globes green building certification system. The ANSI standards development process was led by a technical committee comprised of expert individuals and organizations and involved extensive consultation and consensus building.
The Green Globes certification system is similar to LEED in that the assessment is based on award of points for different building characteristics. Different point scales exist for different types of buildings. Programs have been developed for existing buildings (Green Globes Continual Improvement of Existing Buildings [CIEB]) and for new construction (Green Globes for New Construction) (Air Quality Sciences, 2009). Table 2.1 illustrates the division of points for new construction along with the points received for an example building (the Wisconsin Electrical Employees Benefit Fund Office). The Green Globes certification has four different levels (represented by one to four green globes) with 35-54 percent for one globe, 55-69 percent for two globes, 70-84 percent for three globes, and 85-100 percent for four