preheated fuel. The MagLIF design is to be investigated in near-term validation experiments and simulations.
• Benchmark experiments on Z have shown excellent agreement between magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor simulations and observations.
• Development of an overall system for pulsed-power IFE was supported from 2004 to 2006 by modest (~$10 million) internal research funding. Sandia has indicated that internally funded research ($700,000) is now under way to continue the development of the RTLs.
Numerous issues surrounding target physics, driver technology, and fusion power system parameters stand between the current state of technology and magnetic IFE. These issues include the following:
• Liner dynamics
—Obtain requisite velocities with suitable shell integrity.
—Demonstrate sufficient control over the fuel adiabat during the implosion (e.g., pulse shaping).
—Demonstrate tolerable levels of mixing at stagnation.
—Demonstrate required level of axial asymmetry.
—Demonstrate required level of azimuthal asymmetry.
• Fuel assembly
—Demonstrate the required stagnation pressure.
—Demonstrate required confinement time.
—Compress sufficient current to a small radius to create extreme conditions.
—Compress magnetic flux in the stagnating plasma.
• Driver scaling
—Determine the driver parameters required for ignition and/or high yield.
—Demonstrate scientific breakeven and support target approach with validated simulations.
—Develop robust, high-yield targets designs in state-of-the-art 2-D and 3-D simulations.
—Demonstrate a repetitive coupling with an RTL system.
—Design a system for reliably creating, handling, and utilizing repetitive, high fusion yield with high availability.
Some additional specific technical issues still need to be explored:
• The MagLIF target design benefits from short implosion times; that is, the final density of the imploded fuel varies as (100 ns)/implosion time. However, the cost and the complexity of the pulsed-power driver have the opposite scaling. It was also stated that some target designs might be able