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PREPUBLICATION COPY--SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 6687 6688 Appendix G: Glossary and Acronyms 6689 Ablator: the outermost layer of the target capsule which is rapidly heated and 6690 vaporized, compressing the rest of the target. 6691 Adiabat (plasma physics): determined, for instance, by the ratio of the plasma 6692 pressure to the Fermi pressure (the pressure of a degenerate electron gas), used as a 6693 measure of plasma entropy. 6694 Blanket: the section of the reactor chamber that serves as the heat transfer medium for 6695 the fusion reactor chamber. Some blanket concepts also incorporate materials for 6696 tritium breeding as well as cooling. 6697 Cryogenic: involving very low temperatures 6698 Diode-pumped lasers: lasers wherein laser diodes illuminate a solid gain medium 6699 (such as a crystal or glass). 6700 Direct drive: inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technique whereby the driver energy 6701 strikes the fuel capsule directly. 6702 Driver: The mechanism by which energy is delivered to the fuel capsule. Typical 6703 techniques use lasers, heavy-ion beams, and Z-pinches. 6704 Dry-wall: a design of a fusion reactor chamber’s first wall that employs no liquid or 6705 gaseous protection. 6706 Fast ignition: ICF technique whereby the driver gradually compresses the fuel 6707 capsule, at which point a high-intensity, ultrashort-pulse laser strikes the fuel to 6708 trigger ignition. 6709 First wall: the first surface of the fusion reactor chamber that radiation and/or debris 6710 emitted from the target implosion will encounter. These walls may vary in 6711 composition and execution such as dry, wetted, or liquid jet. 6712 Gain: ratio of the fusion energy released by the target to the driver energy applied to 6713 the target in a single explosion. 6714 Heavy-ion fusion: ICF technique whereby ions of heavy elements are accelerated and 6715 directed onto a target. 6716 High average power: maintaining a high, repeatable driver power that is suitable for 6717 an inertial confinement fusion-based power plant. A-40
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PREPUBLICATION COPY--SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 6718 High-energy-density science: the study of the creation, behavior, and interaction of 6719 matter with extremely high energy densities. 6720 High repetition rate: maintaining a high rate for engaging the driver or igniting the 6721 target, suitable for an inertial confinement fusion-based power plant (e.g., 10 Hz). 6722 Hohlraum: a hollow container in which an inertial confinement fusion target may be 6723 placed, whose walls are used to re-radiate incident energy to drive the capsule’s 6724 implosion. 6725 Hydrodynamic Instability: concept in which fluids of differing physical qualities 6726 interact and perturbations such as turbulence occur. Examples include Rayleigh- 6727 Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. 6728 Ignition (broad definition): the condition in a plasma when self-heating from nuclear 6729 fusion reactions is at a sufficient rate to maintain the plasma, its temperature and 6730 fusion reactions, without the need to apply any external energy to the plasma. 6731 Ignition (IFE): a state when fusion gain exceeds unity, i.e., when the fusion energy 6732 released in a single explosion exceeds the energy applied to the target. 6733 Indirect drive: inertial confinement fusion technique whereby the driver energy 6734 strikes the fuel capsule indirectly, e.g., by the x-rays produced by heating a high-Z 6735 enclosure (hohlraum) that surrounds the fuel capsule. 6736 Inertial confinement fusion (ICF): concept in which a driver delivers energy to the 6737 outer surface of a pellet of fuel (typically containing a mixture of deuterium and 6738 tritium), heating and compressing it. The heating and compression then initiate a 6739 fusion chain reaction. 6740 Inertial fusion energy: concept whereby ICF is used to predictably and continuously 6741 initiate fusion chain reactions that yield more energy than that incident on the fuel 6742 from the driver for the ultimate purpose of producing electrical power. 6743 KD*P: Potassium dideuterium phosphate, a widely-used material in frequency 6744 conversion optics. 6745 Krypton fluoride (KrF) laser: a gas laser that operates in the ultraviolet at 248nm. 6746 Laser-Plasma Instability: the secondary processes such as symmetry disturbances, 6747 fuel pre-heat, and diversion of laser energy that occur when intense lasers interact 6748 with plasmas. 6749 Liquid wall: a design of a fusion reactor chamber’s first wall that features thick jets of 6750 liquid coolant that may also shield the solid chamber walls from neutron damage. A-41
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PREPUBLICATION COPY--SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 6751 Magnetized target fusion: ICF technique whereby a magnetic field is created 6752 surrounding the target, and the magnetic field is then imploded around the target, 6753 initiating fusion reactions. 6754 Mix (plasma physics): the occurrence of colder target material being incorporated 6755 into the hot reaction region of the target, usually as a result of hydrodynamic 6756 instabilities. 6757 Pulse compression: a technique whereby the incident pulse is compressed to deliver 6758 the energy in a shorter time. 6759 Pulsed-power fusion: ICF technique whereby a large electrical current is used to 6760 magnetically implode a target. 6761 Reactor chamber: The apparatus in which the fusion reactions would take place in an 6762 inertial fusion energy power plant, and which would contain and capture the resulting 6763 energy released from repeated ignition. 6764 Sabot: a protective device used when injecting an inertial fusion energy target into the 6765 chamber at high speed. 6766 Shock ignition: ICF technique that uses hydrodynamic shocks to ignite the 6767 compressed hot spot. 6768 Target: the fuel capsule, together with a holhraum or other energy-focusing device (if 6769 one is used), that is struck by the driver’s incident energy in order to initiate fusion 6770 reactions. 6771 Wall-plug efficiency: the energy conversion efficiency defined as a ratio of the total 6772 driver output power to the input electrical power. 6773 Wetted-wall: a fusion reactor chamber’s first wall which features a renewable, thin 6774 layer of liquid. 6775 6776 A-42
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PREPUBLICATION COPY--SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 6777 6778 Acronyms and Abbreviations Used In This Report 6779 APG advanced phosphate glass 6780 AWE Atomic Weapons Establishment 6781 BOP balance of plant 6782 CEA Commisariat a l'Energie Atomique 6783 CELIA Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications 6784 COE cost of electricity 6785 CPA chirped-pulse amplification 6786 CPP continuous phase plate 6787 CVD chemical vapor deposition 6788 D deuterium 6789 DD (drive context) direct drive 6790 DEMO demonstration plant 6791 DOE Department of Energy 6792 DPSSL diode-pumped solid state laser 6793 DT deuterium-tritium 6794 ELI Extreme Light Infrastructure 6795 ETF engineering test facility 6796 FAIR Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research 6797 FESAC Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee 6798 FLiBe fluorine-lithium-beryllium 6799 FTF Fusion Test Facility 6800 GA giga ampere 6801 GDP glow discharge polymer A-43
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PREPUBLICATION COPY--SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 6802 GJ gigajoule 6803 GW gigawatt 6804 HAPL High Average Power Laser 6805 HCX High-Current Experiment 6806 HIF heavy-ion fusion 6807 HIFTF Heavy-Ion Fusion Test Facility 6808 HIF-VL Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual Laboratory 6809 HI-IFE Heavy-Ion Inertial Fusion Energy 6810 HiPER High Power laser Energy Research 6811 HLW high-level waste 6812 ICF inertial confinement fusion 6813 ID indirect drive 6814 IFE inertial fusion energy 6815 i-LIFT Laboratory Inertial Fusion Test 6816 IRE integrated research experiment 6817 ISI incoherent spatial imaging 6818 ITER International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor 6819 KDP potassium dihydrogen phosphate 6820 KrF krypton fluoride 6821 kWh kilowatt hour 6822 LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory 6823 LBNL Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 6824 LDRD laboratory-directed research and development 6825 LIFE Laser Inertial Fusion Energy 6826 LIL Ligne d'Integration Laser A-44
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PREPUBLICATION COPY--SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 6827 LLE Laboratory for Laser Energetics 6828 LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 6829 LLW low-level waste 6830 LMJ Laser Mégajoule 6831 LPI laser plasma interaction 6832 LTD linear transformer driver 6833 LULI Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses 6834 LWR light water reactor 6835 MA mega ampere 6836 MagLIF magnetized liner inertial fusion 6837 MeV mega electron volt 6838 MFE magnetic fusion energy 6839 MG mega gauss 6840 MJ megajoule 6841 MTF Magnetized Target Fusion 6842 NCDX-II neutralized drift compression experiment II 6843 NGNP Next Generation Nuclear Plant 6844 NIC National Ignition Campaign 6845 NIF National Ignition Facility 6846 NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration 6847 NRL Naval Research Laboratory 6848 OFES Office of Fusion Energy Sciences 6849 PALS Prague Asterisk Laser System 6850 PAMS poly-alpha-methyl-styrene 6851 PDD polar direct drive A-45
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PREPUBLICATION COPY--SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 6852 PETAL PETawatt Aquitaine Laser 6853 PP pulsed power 6854 PPPL Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 6855 RF radio frequency 6856 RTL recyclable transmission line 6857 SAC science advisory committee 6858 SAL specific activity limit 6859 SBS stimulated Brillouin scattering 6860 S-FAP strontium fluoroapatite 6861 SNL Sandia National Laboratory 6862 SRS stimulated Raman scattering 6863 SSD smoothing by spectral dispersion 6864 T tritium 6865 TA technology application 6866 TBM Test Blanket Module 6867 TPD two-plasmon decay 6868 TRL technology readiness level 6869 TWAC TeraWatt ACcelerator 6870 UV ultraviolet 6871 VLT Virtual Laboratory for Technology 6872 YAG yttrium-aluminum-garnet 6873 A-46