Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$49.95



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 1
NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas Kindergarten Through Fifth Grade. . . . . . . . . . 2 3-ESS2 Earth’s Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 MS-LS3 Heredity: 3-ESS3 Earth and Human Activity. . . . . . . . . 33 Inheritance and Variation of Traits. . . . . . . 72 Kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MS-LS4 Biological Evolution: K-PS2 Motion and Stability: Fourth Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Unity and Diversity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Forces and Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-PS3 Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 K-PS3 Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4-PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Middle School Earth and Space Sciences. . . . 76 K-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Technologies for Information Transfer. . . . 37 MS-ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe . . . . . 78 Structures and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: MS-ESS2 Earth’s Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 K-ESS2 Earth’s Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Structures and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 MS-ESS3 Earth and Human Activity . . . . . . . 83 K-ESS3 Earth and Human Activity. . . . . . . . . . 8 4-ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe. . . . . . . 39 Middle School Engineering Design . . . . . . . . 85 4-ESS2 Earth’s Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 First Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 MS-ETS1 Engineering Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 4-ESS3 Earth and Human Activity. . . . . . . . . 41 1-PS4 Waves and Their Applications in High School Physical Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Next Generation Science Standards — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas Technologies for Information Transfer. . . . 10 Fifth Grade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 HS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions. . . . . . . . 91 1-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: 5-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions . . . . . . . . . 43 HS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Structures and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 1-LS3 Heredity: Forces and Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 HS-PS3 Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Inheritance and Variation of Traits. . . . . . . 13 5-PS3 Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 HS-PS4 Waves and Their Applications in 1-ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe. . . . . . . 14 5-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Technologies for Information Transfer. . . 100 Structures and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Second Grade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5-LS2 Ecosystems: High School Life Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 2-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions . . . . . . . . . 16 Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics . . . . . . 48 HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: 2-LS2 Ecosystems: 5-ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe. . . . . . . 49 Structures and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics . . . . . . 18 5-ESS2 Earth’s Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 HS-LS2 Ecosystems: 2-LS4 Biological Evolution: 5-ESS3 Earth and Human Activity. . . . . . . . . 51 Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics . . . . . 108 Unity and Diversity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 HS-LS3 Heredity: 2-ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe. . . . . . . 20 3–5 Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . Inheritance and Variation of Traits. . . . . . 112 2-ESS2 Earth’s Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3-5-ETS1 Engineering Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: K–2 Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Middle School Physical Sciences . . . . . . . . . . 54 Unity and Diversity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 K-2-ETS1 Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . MS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions. . . . . . . . 56 High School Earth and Space Sciences . . . . 117 MS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Third Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . HS-ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe. . . . . 119 Forces and Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3-PS2 Motion and Stability: HS-ESS2 Earth’s Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 MS-PS3 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Forces and Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 HS-ESS3 Earth and Human Activity. . . . . . . 125 MS-PS4 Waves and Their Applications in 3-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Technologies for Information Transfer. . . . 63 High School Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . 128 Structures and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 HS-ETS1 Engineering Design. . . . . . . . . . . . 129 3-LS2 Ecosystems: Middle School Life Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics . . . . . . 28 MS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Connections to Standards Arranged by 3-LS3 Heredity: Structures and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs). . . . . . . . . . 131 Inheritance and Variation of Traits. . . . . . . 29 MS-LS2 Ecosystems: 3-LS4 Biological Evolution: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics . . . . . . 70 Unity and Diversity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 1

OCR for page 1
KINDERGARTEN THROUGH FIFTH GRADE Students in kindergarten through fifth grade begin to develop an understanding of the four disciplin- ary core ideas: physical sciences; life sciences; earth and space sciences; and engineering, technology, and applications of science. In the earlier grades, students begin by recognizing patterns and formulating answers to questions about the world around them. By the end of fifth grade, students should be able to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in gathering, describing, and using information about the natural and designed world(s). The performance expectations in elementary school grade bands develop ideas and skills that will allow students to explain more complex phenomena in the four disciplines as they progress to middle school and high school. While the performance expectations shown in kindergarten through fifth grade couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include use of many practices that lead to the performance expectations. Kindergarten Through Fifth Grade 2 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas

OCR for page 1
KINDERGARTEN The performance expectations in kindergarten help students formulate answers to questions such as: “What happens if you push or pull an object harder? Where do animals live and why do they live there? What is the weather like today and how is it different from yesterday?” Kindergarten perfor- mance expectations include PS2, PS3, LS1, ESS2, ESS3, and ETS1 Disciplinary Core Ideas from the NRC Framework. Students are expected to develop understanding of patterns and variations in local weather and the purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for, and respond to, severe weather. Students should be able to apply an understanding of the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object to analyze a design solution. Students are also expected to develop understanding of what plants and animals (including humans) need to survive and the relationship between their needs and where they live. The crosscutting concepts of patterns; cause and effect; sys- tems and system models; interdependence of science, engineering, and technology; and influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are called out as organizing con- cepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In the kindergarten performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in asking questions, developing and using models, planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, designing solutions, engaging in argument from evidence, and obtain- ing, evaluating, and communicating information. Students are expected to use these practices to dem- onstrate understanding of the core ideas. Kindergarten NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 3

OCR for page 1
K‑PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: K-PS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the K-PS2-2. Analyze data to determine if a design solution works effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a and pulls on the motion of an object. [Clarification Statement: push or a pull.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of problems requiring Examples of pushes or pulls could include a string attached to an object a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain being pulled, a person pushing an object, a person stopping a rolling ball, distance, follow a particular path, and knock down other objects. Examples and two objects colliding and pushing on each other.] [Assessment Boundary: of solutions could include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of an Assessment is limited to different relative strengths or different directions, object and a structure that would cause an object such as a marble or ball but not both at the same time. Assessment does not include non-contact to turn.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include friction as a pushes or pulls such as those produced by magnets.] mechanism for change in speed.] *This performance expectation integrates traditional science content with engineering through a practice or disciplinary core idea. Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Planning and Carrying Out Investigations PS2.A: Forces and Motion Cause and Effect Planning and carrying out investigations to answer • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 directions. (K‑PS2‑1), (K‑PS2‑2) to support or refute student ideas about causes. builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the (K‑PS2‑1), (K‑PS2‑2) investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data speed or direction of its motion and can start or    to support explanations or design solutions. stop it. (K‑PS2‑1), (K‑PS2‑2) • With guidance, plan and conduct an investigation PS2.B: Types of Interactions K‑PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and interactions in collaboration with peers. (K‑PS2‑1) • When objects touch or collide, they push on one Analyzing and Interpreting Data another and can change motion. (K‑PS2‑1) Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing Forces observations. • A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or • Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to slow down more quickly. (secondary to K‑PS2‑1) determine if it works as intended. (K‑PS2‑2) ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems • A situation that people want to change or create Connections to Nature of Science can be approached as a problem to be solved Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of through engineering. Such problems may have Methods many acceptable solutions. (secondary to K‑PS2‑2) • Scientists use different ways to study the world.    (K‑PS2‑1)    4 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas See connections to K‑PS2 on page 131.

OCR for page 1
K‑PS3 Energy PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: K-PS3-1. Make observations to determine the effect of sunlight K-PS3-2. Use tools and materials to design and build a structure on Earth’s surface. [Clarification Statement: Examples of Earth’s surface that will reduce the warming effect of sunlight on an area.* could include sand, soil, rocks, and water.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment [Clarification Statement: Examples of structures could include umbrellas, of temperature is limited to relative measures such as warmer/cooler.] canopies, and tents that minimize the warming effect of the sun.] *This performance expectation integrates traditional science content with engineering through a practice or disciplinary core idea. Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Planning and Carrying Out Investigations PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Cause and Effect Planning and carrying out investigations to answer Transfer • Events have causes that generate observable questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 • Sunlight warms Earth’s surface. (K‑PS3‑1), patterns. (K‑PS3‑1), (K‑PS3‑2) builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple (K‑PS3‑2)    investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data    to support explanations or design solutions. • Make observations (firsthand or from media) to collect data that can be used to make comparisons. (K‑PS3‑1) Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions Constructing explanations and designing solutions in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to the use of evidence and ideas in constructing evidence- based accounts of natural phenomena and designing solutions. • Use tools and materials provided to design and build a device that solves a specific problem or a solution to a specific problem. (K‑PS3‑2) Connections to Nature of Science Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods • Scientists use different ways to study the world. (K‑PS3‑1)    K‑PS3 Energy See connections to K‑PS3 on page 131. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 5

OCR for page 1
K‑LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: K-LS1-1. Use observations to describe patterns of what plants food but plants do not, the different kinds of food needed by different types and animals (including humans) need to survive. [Clarification of animals, the requirement of plants to have light, and that all living things Statement: Examples of patterns could include that animals need to take in need water.] Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Analyzing and Interpreting Data LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Patterns Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences Flow in Organisms • Patterns in the natural and human designed world and progresses to collecting, recording, and • All animals need food in order to live and grow. can be observed and used as evidence. (K‑LS1‑1) sharing observations. They obtain their food from plants or from other    • Use observations (firsthand or from media) to animals. Plants need water and light to live and describe patterns in the natural world in order to grow. (K‑LS1‑1) answer scientific questions. (K‑LS1‑1)    Connections to Nature of Science Scientific Knowledge Is Based on Empirical K‑LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes Evidence • Scientists look for patterns and order when making observations about the world. (K‑LS1‑1)    6 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas See connections to K‑LS1 on page 131.

OCR for page 1
K‑ESS2 Earth’s Systems PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: K-ESS2-1. Use and share observations of local weather observations is limited to whole numbers and relative measures such as conditions to describe patterns over time. [Clarification Statement: warmer/cooler.] Examples of qualitative observations could include descriptions of the K-ESS2-2. Construct an argument supported by evidence for weather (such as sunny, cloudy, rainy, and warm); examples of quantitative how plants and animals (including humans) can change the observations could include numbers of sunny, windy, and rainy days in a environment to meet their needs. [Clarification Statement: Examples month. Examples of patterns could include that it is usually cooler in the of plants and animals changing their environment could include a squirrel morning than in the afternoon and the number of sunny days versus cloudy digging in the ground to hide its food and that tree roots can break concrete.] days in different months.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of quantitative Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Analyzing and Interpreting Data ESS2.D: Weather and Climate Patterns Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences • Weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, • Patterns in the natural world can be observed, used and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing snow or rain, and temperature in a particular to describe phenomena, and used as evidence. observations. region at a particular time. People measure these (K‑ESS2‑1) • Use observations (firsthand or from media) to conditions to describe and record the weather and Systems and System Models describe patterns in the natural world in order to to notice patterns over time. (K‑ESS2‑1) • Systems in the natural and designed world have answer scientific questions. (K‑ESS2‑1) ESS2.E: Biogeology parts that work together. (K‑ESS2‑2) Engaging in Argument from Evidence • Plants and animals can change their environment.    Engaging in argument from evidence in K–2 builds on (K‑ESS2‑2) prior experiences and progresses to comparing ideas ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems and representations about the natural and designed • Things that people do to live comfortably can world(s). affect the world around them. But they can make • Construct an argument with evidence to support a choices that reduce their impacts on the land, claim. (K‑ESS2‑2) water, air, and other living things. (secondary to K‑ESS2‑2) Connections to Nature of Science    Scientific Knowledge Is Based on Empirical Evidence • Scientists look for patterns and order when making observations about the world. (K‑ESS2‑1) K‑ESS2 Earth’s Systems    See connections to K‑ESS2 on page 131. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 7

OCR for page 1
K‑ESS3 Earth and Human Activity PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: K-ESS3-1. Use a model to represent the relationship between K-ESS3-3. Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of the needs of different plants or animals (including humans) and humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the the places they live. [Clarification Statement: Examples of relationships local environment.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of human impact could include that deer eat buds and leaves and therefore usually live on land could include cutting trees to produce paper and using resources in forested areas and that grasses need sunlight so they often grow in to produce bottles. Examples of solutions could include reusing paper and meadows. Plants, animals, and their surroundings make up a system.] recycling cans and bottles.] K-ESS3-2. Ask questions to obtain information about the *This performance expectation integrates traditional science content with engineering through a practice or disciplinary core idea. purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for, and respond to, severe weather.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on local forms of severe weather.] Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Asking Questions and Defining Problems ESS3.A: Natural Resources Cause and Effect Asking questions and defining problems in K–2 • Living things need water, air, and resources from • Events have causes that generate observable builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple the land, and they live in places that have the patterns. (K‑ESS3‑2), (K‑ESS3‑3) descriptive questions that can be tested. things they need. Humans use natural resources for Systems and System Models • Ask questions based on observations to find more everything they do. (K‑ESS3‑1) • Systems in the natural and designed world have information about the designed world. (K‑ESS3‑2) ESS3.B: Natural Hazards parts that work together. (K‑ESS3‑1) Developing and Using Models • Some kinds of severe weather are more likely than Modeling in K–2 builds on prior experiences and others in a given region. Weather scientists forecast Connections to Engineering, Technology, and progresses to include using and developing models severe weather so that communities can prepare Applications of Science (i.e., diagram, drawing, physical replica, diorama, for and respond to these events. (K‑ESS3‑2) dramatization, storyboard) that represent concrete Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems Technology events or design solutions. • Things that people do to live comfortably can • Use a model to represent relationships in the • People encounter questions about the natural affect the world around them. But they can make world every day. (K‑ESS3‑2) natural world. (K‑ESS3‑1) choices that reduce their impacts on the land, Influence of Engineering, Technology, and K‑ESS3 Earth and Human Activity Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating water, air, and other living things. (K‑ESS3‑3) Information Science on Society and the Natural World ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an • People depend on various technologies in their Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating Engineering Problem information in K–2 builds on prior experiences and lives; human life would be very different without • Asking questions, making observations, and technology. (K‑ESS3‑2) uses observations and texts to communicate new gathering information are helpful in thinking about information.    problems. (secondary to K‑ESS3‑2) • Read grade‑appropriate texts and/or use media to obtain scientific information to describe patterns in ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions the natural world. (K‑ESS3‑2) • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, • Communicate solutions with others in oral and/or drawings, or physical models. These written forms using models and/or drawings that representations are useful in communicating provide detail about scientific ideas. (K‑ESS3‑3) ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. (secondary to K‑ESS3‑3)       8 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas See connections to K‑ESS3 on page 132.

OCR for page 1
FIRST GRADE The performance expectations in first grade help students formulate answers to questions such as: “What happens when materials vibrate? What happens when there is no light? What are some ways plants and animals meet their needs so that they can survive and grow? How are parents and their children similar and different? What objects are in the sky and how do they seem to move?” First grade performance expectations include PS4, LS1, LS3, and ESS1 Disciplinary Core Ideas from the NRC Framework. Students are expected to develop understanding of the relationship between sound and vibrating mate- rials as well as between the availability of light and the ability to see objects. The idea that light travels from place to place can be understood by students at this level through determining the effect of plac- ing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light. Students are also expected to develop understanding of how plants and animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs as well as how the behaviors of parents and offspring help offspring survive. The understanding is developed that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly the same as, their parents. Students are able to observe, describe, and predict some patterns of the movement of objects in the sky. The crosscutting concepts of patterns; cause and effect; structure and function; and influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In the first grade performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, construct- ing explanations and designing solutions, and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. Students are expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas. First Grade NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 9

OCR for page 1
1‑PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: 1-PS4-1. Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence 1-PS4-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to determine the that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path make materials vibrate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of vibrating of a beam of light. [Clarification Statement: Examples of materials could materials that make sound could include tuning forks and plucking a include those that are transparent (such as clear plastic), translucent (such as stretched string. Examples of how sound can make matter vibrate could wax paper), opaque (such as cardboard), and reflective (such as a mirror).] include holding a piece of paper near a speaker making sound and holding [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the speed of light.] an object near a vibrating tuning fork.] 1-PS4-4. Use tools and materials to design and build a device 1-PS4-2. Make observations to construct an evidence-based that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating account that objects can be seen only when illuminated. over a distance.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could [Clarification Statement: Examples of observations could include those made include a light source to send signals, paper cup and string “telephones,” 1‑PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer in a completely dark room, a pinhole box, and a video of a cave explorer and a pattern of drum beats.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not with a flashlight. Illumination could be from an external light source or by include technological details for how communication devices work.] an object giving off its own light.] *This performance expectation integrates traditional science content with engineering through a practice or disciplinary core idea. Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Planning and Carrying Out Investigations PS4.A: Wave Properties Cause and Effect Planning and carrying out investigations to answer • Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 matter can make sound. (1‑PS4‑1) to support or refute student ideas about causes. builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation (1‑PS4‑1), (1‑PS4‑2), (1‑PS4‑3) investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data • Objects can be seen if light is available to to support explanations or design solutions. illuminate them or if they give off their own light. Connections to Engineering, Technology, and • Plan and conduct investigations collaboratively to (1‑PS4‑2) Applications of Science produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to • Some materials allow light to pass through them, answer a question. (1‑PS4‑1), (1‑PS4‑3) Influence of Engineering, Technology, and others allow only some light through, and others Science on Society and the Natural World Constructing Explanations and Designing block all the light and create a dark shadow on • People depend on various technologies in their Solutions any surface beyond them, where the light cannot lives; human life would be very different without Constructing explanations and designing solutions in reach. Mirrors can be used to redirect a light beam. technology. (1‑PS4‑4) K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to the (Boundary: The idea that light travels from place to    use of evidence and ideas in constructing evidence- place is developed through experiences with light based accounts of natural phenomena and designing sources, mirrors, and shadows, but no attempt is solutions. made to discuss the speed of light.) (1‑PS4‑3) • Make observations (firsthand or from media) to PS4.C: Information Technologies and construct an evidence‑based account for natural Instrumentation phenomena. (1‑PS4‑2) • People also use a variety of devices to • Use tools and materials provided to design a communicate (send and receive information) over device that solves a specific problem. (1‑PS4‑4) long distances. (1‑PS4‑4)    10 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas See connections to 1‑PS4 on page 132.

OCR for page 1
1‑PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Connections to Nature of Science Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods • Science investigations begin with a question. (1‑PS4‑1) 1‑PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer (continued  ) • Scientists use different ways to study the world. (1‑PS4‑1)    See connections to 1‑PS4 on page 132. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 11

OCR for page 1
HS‑ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Using Mathematical and Computational • The Big Bang theory is supported by observations Energy and Matter Thinking of distant galaxies receding from our own, of the • Energy cannot be created or destroyed—it only Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 measured composition of stars and non‑stellar moved between one place and another place, builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using gases, and of the maps of spectra of the primordial between objects and/or fields, or between systems. algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear radiation (cosmic microwave background) that still (HS‑ESS1‑2) and non‑linear functions, including trigonometric fills the universe. (HS‑ESS1‑2) • In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, functions, exponentials and logarithms, and • Other than the hydrogen and helium formed at the but the total number of protons plus neutrons is computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, time of the Big Bang, nuclear fusion within stars conserved. (HS‑ESS1‑3) represent, and model data. Simple computational produces all atomic nuclei lighter than and including Stability and Change simulations are created and used based on iron, and the process releases electromagnetic • Much of science deals with constructing mathematical models of basic assumptions. energy. Heavier elements are produced when explanations of how things change and how they • Use mathematical or computational certain massive stars achieve a supernova stage and remain stable. (HS‑ESS1‑6) representations of phenomena to describe explode. (HS‑ESS1‑2), (HS‑ESS1‑3) explanations. (HS‑ESS1‑4) ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Constructing Explanations and Designing • Kepler’s Laws describe common features of Applications of Science Solutions the motions of orbiting objects, including their Constructing explanations and designing solutions elliptical paths around the sun. Orbits may change Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions Technology to explanations and designs that are supported by with, other objects in the solar system. (HS‑ESS1‑4) • Science and engineering complement each other multiple and independent student-generated sources in the cycle known as research and development ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth (R&D). Many R&D projects may involve scientists, of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, • Continental rocks, which can be older than 4 and theories. engineers, and others with wide ranges of HS‑ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe (continued  ) billion years, are generally much older than the expertise. (HS‑ESS1‑2), (HS‑ESS1‑4) • Construct an explanation based on valid and rocks of the ocean floor, which are less than 200 reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources million years old. (HS‑ESS1‑5) (including students’ own investigations, theories, Connections to Nature of Science • Although active geologic processes, such as plate simulations, peer review) and the assumption that tectonics and erosion, have destroyed or altered Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and theories and laws that describe the natural world most of the very early rock record on Earth, other Consistency in Natural Systems operate today as they did in the past and will objects in the solar system, such as lunar rocks, • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption continue to do so in the future. (HS‑ESS1‑2) asteroids, and meteorites, have changed little that natural laws operate today as they did in • Apply scientific reasoning to link evidence to over billions of years. Studying these objects can the past and will continue to do so in the future. claims to assess the extent to which the reasoning provide information about Earth’s formation and (HS‑ESS1‑2) and data support the explanation or conclusion. early history. (HS‑ESS1‑6) • Science assumes the universe is a vast single (HS‑ESS1‑6) system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS‑ESS1‑2) 120 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas See connections to HS‑ESS1 on page 160.

OCR for page 1
HS‑ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Engaging in Argument from Evidence ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 System Interactions builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to • Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains using appropriate and sufficient evidence and the past and current movements of the rocks at scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims Earth’s surface and provides a framework for and explanations about the natural and designed understanding its geologic history. (ESS2.B Grade 8 world(s). Arguments may also come from current GBE) (secondary to HS‑ESS1‑5) scientific or historical episodes in science. PS1.C: Nuclear Processes • Evaluate evidence behind currently accepted • Spontaneous radioactive decays follow a explanations or solutions to determine the merits characteristic exponential decay law. Nuclear of arguments. (HS‑ESS1‑5) lifetimes allow radiometric dating to be used to Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating determine the ages of rocks and other materials. Information (secondary to HS‑ESS1‑5), (secondary to HS‑ESS1‑6) Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and Everyday Life progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of • Nuclear fusion processes in the center of the sun the claims, methods, and designs. release the energy that ultimately reaches Earth as • Communicate scientific ideas (e.g., about radiation. (secondary to HS‑ESS1‑1) phenomena and/or the process of development and the design and performance of a proposed PS4.B Electromagnetic Radiation process or system) in multiple formats (including • Atoms of each element emit and absorb orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically). characteristic frequencies of light. These HS‑ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe (continued  ) (HS‑ESS1‑3) characteristics allow identification of the presence of an element, even in microscopic quantities. (secondary to HS‑ESS1‑2) Connections to Nature of Science Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment, and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS‑ESS1‑2), (HS‑ESS1‑6) • Models, mechanisms, and explanations collectively serve as tools in the development of a scientific theory. (HS‑ESS1‑6) See connections to HS‑ESS1 on page 160. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 121

OCR for page 1
HS‑ESS2 Earth’s Systems PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS2-1. Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal the orientation of its axis; and 10s–100s of millions of years: long-term and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal changes in atmospheric composition.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. [Clarification of the results of changes in climate is limited to changes in surface Statement: Emphasis is on how the appearance of land features (such as temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, and mountains, valleys, and plateaus) and sea floor features (such as trenches, biosphere distribution.] ridges, and seamounts) are a result of both constructive forces (such as HS-ESS2-5. Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties volcanism, tectonic uplift, and orogeny) and destructive mechanisms (such of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. as weathering, mass wasting, and coastal erosion).] [Assessment Boundary: [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on mechanical and chemical Assessment does not include memorization of details of the formation of investigations with water and a variety of solid materials to provide evidence specific geographic features of Earth’s surface.] for the connections between the hydrologic cycle and system interactions HS-ESS2-2. Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that commonly known as the rock cycle. Examples of mechanical investigations one change to Earth’s surface can create feedbacks that cause include stream transportation and deposition using a stream table, erosion changes to other Earth systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples using variations in soil moisture content, and frost wedging by the expansion should include climate feedbacks, such as how an increase in greenhouse of water as it freezes. Examples of chemical investigations include chemical gases causes a rise in global temperatures that melts glacial ice, which weathering and recrystallization (by testing the solubility of different reduces the amount of sunlight reflected from Earth’s surface, increasing materials) or melt generation (by examining how water lowers the melting surface temperatures and further reducing the amount of ice. Examples temperature of most solids).] could also be taken from other system interactions, such as how the loss of HS-ESS2-6. Develop a quantitative model to describe the ground vegetation causes an increase in water runoff and soil erosion; how cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, dammed rivers increase groundwater recharge, decrease sediment transport, geosphere, and biosphere. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on and increase coastal erosion; and how the loss of wetlands causes a decrease modeling biogeochemical cycles that include the cycling of carbon through in local humidity that further reduces the wetlands’ extent.] the ocean, atmosphere, soil, and biosphere (including humans), providing HS-ESS2-3. Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s the foundation for living organisms.] interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection. HS-ESS2-7. Construct an argument based on evidence about [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both a one-dimensional model of the simultaneous co-evolution of Earth’s systems and life on Earth, with radial layers determined by density, and a three-dimensional Earth. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the dynamic causes, effects, model, which is controlled by mantle convection and the resulting plate and feedbacks between the biosphere and Earth’s other systems, whereby tectonics. Examples of evidence include maps of Earth’s three-dimensional geoscience factors control the evolution of life, which in turn continuously structure obtained from seismic waves, records of the rate of change of alters Earth’s surface. Examples include how photosynthetic life altered the Earth’s magnetic field (as constraints on convection in the outer core), atmosphere through the production of oxygen, which in turn increased and identification of the composition of Earth’s layers from high-pressure weathering rates and allowed for the evolution of animal life; how microbial laboratory experiments.] HS‑ESS2 Earth’s Systems life on land increased the formation of soil, which in turn allowed for the HS-ESS2-4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow evolution of land plants; and how the evolution of corals created reefs that of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes altered patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines and provided in climate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of the causes of climate habitats for the evolution of new life forms.] [Assessment Boundary: change differ by timescale, over 1–10 years: large volcanic eruptions, ocean Assessment does not include a comprehensive understanding of the circulation; 10s–100s of years: changes in human activity, ocean circulation, mechanisms of how the biosphere interacts with all of Earth’s other systems.] solar output; 10s–100s of thousands of years: changes to Earth’s orbit and 122 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas See connections to HS‑ESS2 on page 160.

OCR for page 1
HS‑ESS2 Earth’s Systems (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Developing and Using Models ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System Cause and Effect Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and • Cyclical changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing around the sun, together with changes in the tilt between cause and correlation and make claims models to predict and show relationships among of the planet’s axis of rotation, both occurring over about specific causes and effects. (HS‑ESS2‑4) variables between systems and their components in hundreds of thousands of years, have altered the Energy and Matter the natural and designed world(s). intensity and distribution of sunlight falling on Earth. • The total amount of energy and matter in closed • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate These phenomena cause a cycle of ice ages and other systems is conserved. (HS‑ESS2‑6) the relationships between systems or between gradual climate changes. (secondary to HS‑ESS2‑4) • Energy drives the cycling of matter within and components of a system. (HS‑ESS2‑1), (HS‑ESS2‑3), ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems between systems. (HS‑ESS2‑3) (HS‑ESS2‑6) • Earth’s systems, being dynamic and interacting, • Use a model to provide mechanistic accounts of Structure and Function cause feedback effects that can increase or decrease • The functions and properties of natural and phenomena. (HS‑ESS2‑4) the original changes. (HS‑ESS2‑1), (HS‑ESS2‑2) designed objects and systems can be inferred Planning and Carrying Out Investigations • Evidence from deep probes and seismic waves, from their overall structure, the way their Planning and carrying out investigations in 9–12 reconstructions of historical changes in Earth’s components are shaped and used, and the builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include surface and its magnetic field, and an understanding molecular sub‑structures of their various materials. investigations that provide evidence for and test of physical and chemical processes lead to a model (HS‑ESS2‑5) conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical of Earth with a hot but solid inner core, a liquid models. outer core, and a solid mantle and crust. Motions Stability and Change • Plan and conduct an investigation individually of the mantle and its plates occur primarily through • Much of science deals with constructing and collaboratively to produce data to serve as thermal convection, which involves the cycling of explanations of how things change and how they the basis for evidence, and in the design decide matter due to the outward flow of energy from remain stable. (HS‑ESS2‑7) on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed Earth’s interior and gravitational movement of • Change and rates of change can be quantified and to produce reliable measurements and consider denser materials toward the interior. (HS‑ESS2‑3) modeled over very short or very long periods of time. limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., • The geologic record shows that changes to global Some system changes are irreversible. (HS‑ESS2‑1) number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the and regional climate can be caused by interactions • Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or design accordingly. (HS‑ESS2‑5) among changes in the sun’s energy output or destabilize a system. (HS‑ESS2‑2) Analyzing and Interpreting Data Earth’s orbit, tectonic events, ocean circulation, Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences volcanic activity, glaciers, vegetation, and human Connections to Engineering, Technology, and HS‑ESS2 Earth’s Systems (continued  ) and progresses to introducing more detailed activities. These changes can occur on a variety of Applications of Science statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for timescales from sudden (e.g., volcanic ash clouds) Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and consistency, and the use of models to generate and to intermediate (ice ages) to very long‑term tectonic Technology analyze data. cycles. (HS‑ESS2‑4) • Science and engineering complement each other • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale in the cycle known as research and development models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in System Interactions (R&D). Many R&D projects may involve scientists, order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or • The radioactive decay of unstable isotopes engineers, and others with wide ranges of determine an optimal design solution. (HS‑ESS2‑2) continually generates new energy within Earth’s expertise. (HS‑ESS2‑3) crust and mantle, providing the primary source of the heat that drives mantle convection. Plate tectonics can be viewed as the surface expression of mantle convection. (HS‑ESS2‑3) See connections to HS‑ESS2 on page 160. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 123

OCR for page 1
HS‑ESS2 Earth’s Systems (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Engaging in Argument from Evidence • Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 the past and current movements of the rocks at Science on Society and the Natural World builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to Earth’s surface and provides a framework for • New technologies can have deep impacts on using appropriate and sufficient evidence and understanding its geologic history. (ESS2.B Grade 8 society and the environment, including some that scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims GBE), (HS‑ESS2‑1) were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits and explanations about the natural and designed • Plate movements are responsible for most is a critical aspect of decisions about technology. world(s). Arguments may also come from current continental and ocean‑floor features and for the (HS‑ESS2‑2) scientific or historical episodes in science. distribution of most rocks and minerals within • Construct an oral and written argument or Earth’s crust. (ESS2.B Grade 8 GBE), (HS‑ESS2‑1) counter‑arguments based on data and evidence. ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s (HS‑ESS2‑7) Surface Processes • The abundance of liquid water on Earth’s surface Connections to Nature of Science and its unique combination of physical and chemical Scientific Knowledge Is Based on Empirical properties are central to the planet’s dynamics. These Evidence properties include water’s exceptional capacity to • Scientific knowledge is based on empirical absorb, store, and release large amounts of energy, evidence. (HS‑ESS2‑3) transmit sunlight, expand upon freezing, dissolve • Science disciplines share common rules of evidence and transport materials, and lower the viscosities used to evaluate explanations about natural and melting points of rocks. (HS‑ESS2‑5) systems. (HS‑ESS2‑3) ESS2.D: Weather and Climate • Science includes the process of coordinating • The foundation for Earth’s global climate systems is patterns of evidence with current theory. the electromagnetic radiation from the sun, as well as (HS‑ESS2‑3) its reflection, absorption, storage, and redistribution • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple among the atmosphere, ocean, and land systems and lines of evidence supporting a single explanation. this energy’s re‑radiation into space. (HS‑ESS2‑4) (HS‑ESS2‑4) • Gradual atmospheric changes were due to plants and other organisms that captured carbon dioxide HS‑ESS2 Earth’s Systems (continued  ) and released oxygen. (HS‑ESS2‑6), (HS‑ESS2‑7) • Changes in the atmosphere due to human activity have increased carbon dioxide concentrations and thus affect climate. (HS‑ESS2‑6), (HS‑ESS2‑4) ESS2.E: Biogeology • The many dynamic and delicate feedbacks between the biosphere and other Earth systems cause a continual co‑evolution of Earth’s surface and the life that exists on it. (HS‑ESS2‑7) PS4.A: Wave Properties • Geologists use seismic waves and their reflection at interfaces between layers to probe structures deep in the planet. (secondary to HS‑ESS2‑3) 124 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas See connections to HS‑ESS2 on page 160.

OCR for page 1
HS‑ESS3 Earth and Human Activity PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS3-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for HS-ESS3-4. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.* hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data on the impacts of human activities [Clarification Statement: Examples of key natural resources include access to could include the quantities and types of pollutants released, changes to fresh water (such as rivers, lakes, and groundwater), regions of fertile soils biomass and species diversity, or areal changes in land surface use (such such as river deltas, and high concentrations of minerals and fossil fuels. as for urban development, agriculture and livestock, or surface mining). Examples of natural hazards can be from interior processes (such as volcanic Examples for limiting future impacts could range from local efforts (such as eruptions and earthquakes), surface processes (such as tsunamis, mass reducing, reusing, and recycling resources) to large-scale geoengineering wasting, and soil erosion), and severe weather (such as hurricanes, floods, design solutions (such as altering global temperatures by making large and droughts). Examples of the results of changes in climate that can affect changes to the atmosphere or ocean).] populations or drive mass migrations include changes to sea level, regional patterns of temperature and precipitation, and the types of crops and HS-ESS3-5. Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the livestock that can be raised.] current rate of global or regional climate change and associated HS-ESS3-2. Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, future impacts to Earth’s systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based of evidence, for both data and climate model outputs, are for climate on cost-benefit ratios.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the changes (such as precipitation and temperature) and their associated conservation, recycling, and reuse of resources (such as minerals and metals) impacts (such as on sea level, glacial ice volumes, and atmosphere and ocean where possible and on minimizing impacts where it is not. Examples include composition).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one example developing best practices for agricultural soil use, mining (for coal, tar sands, of a climate change and its associated impacts.] and oil shales), and pumping (for petroleum and natural gas). Scientific knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems—not what HS-ESS3-6. Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships should happen.] are being modified due to human activity. [Clarification Statement: HS-ESS3-3. Create a computational simulation to illustrate the Examples of Earth systems to be considered are the hydrosphere, relationships among the management of natural resources, the atmosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and/or biosphere. An example of the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity. [Clarification far-reaching impacts from a human activity is how an increase in atmospheric Statement: Examples of factors that affect the management of natural carbon dioxide results in an increase in photosynthetic biomass on land and resources include the costs of resource extraction and waste management, an increase in ocean acidification, with resulting impacts on sea organism per‑capita consumption, and development of new technologies. Examples of health and marine populations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not HS‑ESS3 Earth and Human Activity factors that affect human sustainability include agricultural efficiency, levels include running computational representations but is limited to using the of conservation, and urban planning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment published results of scientific computational models.] for computational simulations is limited to using provided multi‑parameter *This performance expectation integrates traditional science content with engineering programs or constructing simplified spreadsheet calculations.] through a practice or disciplinary core idea. See connections to HS‑ESS3 on page 161. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 125

OCR for page 1
HS‑ESS3 Earth and Human Activity (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Analyzing and Interpreting Data ESS2.D: Weather and Climate Cause and Effect Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences • Current models predict that, although future • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate and progresses to introducing more detailed regional climate changes will be complex and between cause and correlation and make claims statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for varied, average global temperatures will continue about specific causes and effects. (HS‑ESS3‑1) consistency, and the use of models to generate and to rise. The outcomes predicted by global climate Systems and System Models analyze data. models strongly depend on the amounts of • When investigating or describing a system, the • Analyze data using computational models in order human‑generated greenhouse gases added to boundaries and initial conditions of the system to make valid and reliable scientific claims. the atmosphere each year and by the ways in need to be defined and their inputs and outputs (HS‑ESS3‑5) which these gases are absorbed by the ocean and analyzed and described using models. (HS‑ESS3‑6) Using Mathematics and Computational biosphere. (secondary to HS‑ESS3‑6) Stability and Change Thinking ESS3.A: Natural Resources • Change and rates of change can be quantified and Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 • Resource availability has guided the development modeled over very short or very long periods of builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using of human society. (HS‑ESS3‑1) time. Some system changes are irreversible. algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear • All forms of energy production and other resource (HS‑ESS3‑3), (HS‑ESS3‑5) and non‑linear functions, including trigonometric extraction have associated economic, social, • Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or functions, exponentials and logarithms, and environmental, and geopolitical costs and risks destabilize a system. (HS‑ESS3‑4) computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, as well as benefits. New technologies and social represent, and model data. Simple computational regulations can change the balance of these simulations are created and used based on factors. (HS‑ESS3‑2) Connections to Engineering, Technology, and mathematical models of basic assumptions. Applications of Science ESS3.B: Natural Hazards • Create a computational model or simulation of a • Natural hazards and other geologic events Influence of Engineering, Technology, and phenomenon, designed device, process, or system. have shaped the course of human history; they Science on Society and the Natural World (HS‑ESS3‑3) have significantly altered the sizes of human • Modern civilization depends on major • Use a computational representation of phenomena populations and have driven human migrations. technological systems. (HS‑ESS3‑1), (HS‑ESS3‑3) HS‑ESS3 Earth and Human Activity (continued  ) or design solutions to describe and/or support (HS‑ESS3‑1) • Engineers continuously modify these technological claims and/or explanations. (HS‑ESS3‑6) systems by applying scientific knowledge and ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems engineering design practices to increase benefits Constructing Explanations and Designing • The sustainability of human societies and the Solutions while decreasing costs and risks. (HS‑ESS3‑2), biodiversity that supports them require responsible (HS‑ESS3‑4) Constructing explanations and designing solutions management of natural resources. in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses • New technologies can have deep impacts on (HS‑ESS3‑3) society and the environment, including some that to explanations and designs that are supported by • Scientists and engineers can make major multiple and independent student-generated sources were not anticipated. (HS‑ESS3‑3) contributions by developing technologies that • Analysis of costs and benefits is a critical aspect of of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, produce less pollution and waste and that preclude principles, and theories. decisions about technology. (HS‑ESS3‑2) ecosystem degradation. (HS‑ESS3‑4) • Construct an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of ESS3.D: Global Climate Change Connections to Nature of Science sources (including students’ own investigations, • Though the magnitudes of human impacts are Science Is a Human Endeavor models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the greater than they have ever been, so too are • Science is a result of human endeavors, assumption that theories and laws that describe human abilities to model, predict, and manage imagination, and creativity. (HS‑ESS3‑3) current and future impacts. (HS‑ESS3‑5) 126 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas See connections to HS‑ESS3 on page 161.

OCR for page 1
HS‑ESS3 Earth and Human Activity (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts the natural world operate today as they did in the • Through computer simulations and other studies, Science Addresses Questions About the past and will continue to do so in the future. important discoveries are still being made about Natural and Material World (HS‑ESS3‑1) how the ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere interact • Science and technology may raise ethical issues for • Design or refine a solution to a complex real‑world and are modified in response to human activities. which science, by itself, does not provide answers problem, based on scientific knowledge, (HS‑ESS3‑6) and solutions. (HS‑ESS3‑2) student‑generated sources of evidence, prioritized ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions • Scientific knowledge indicates what can happen criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS‑ESS3‑4) • When evaluating solutions, it is important to take in natural systems—not what should happen. The Engaging in Argument from Evidence into account a range of constraints, including latter involves ethics, values, and human decisions Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to about the use of knowledge. (HS‑ESS3‑2) builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to consider social, cultural, and environmental • Many decisions are not made using science alone, using appropriate and sufficient evidence and impacts. (secondary to HS‑ESS3‑2), (secondary to but rely on social and cultural contexts to resolve scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims HS‑ESS3‑4) issues. (HS‑ESS3‑2) and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science. • Evaluate competing design solutions to a real‑world problem based on scientific ideas and principles, empirical evidence, and logical arguments regarding relevant factors (e.g., economic, societal, environmental, ethical considerations). (HS‑ESS3‑2) Connections to Nature of Science HS‑ESS3 Earth and Human Activity (continued  ) Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods • Scientific investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the same set of procedures to obtain data. (HS‑ESS3‑5) • New technologies advance scientific knowledge. (HS‑ESS3‑5) Scientific Knowledge Is Based on Empirical Evidence • Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence. (HS‑ESS3‑5) • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation. (HS‑ESS3‑5) See connections to HS‑ESS3 on page 161. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 127

OCR for page 1
HIGH SCHOOL ENGINEERING DESIGN At the high school level students are expected to engage with major global issues at the interface of science, technology, society, and the environment and to bring to bear the kinds of analytical and stra- tegic thinking that prior training and increased maturity make possible. As in prior levels, these capa- bilities can be thought of in three stages—defining the problem, developing possible solutions, and improving designs. Defining the problem at the high school level requires both qualitative and quantitative analyses. For example, the need to provide food and fresh water for future generations comes into sharp focus when considering the speed at which the world’s population is growing and the conditions in countries that have experienced famine. While high school students are not expected to solve these challenges, they are expect- ed to begin thinking about them as problems that can be addressed, at least in part, through engineering. Developing possible solutions for major global problems begins by breaking them down into smaller problems that can be tackled with engineering methods. To evaluate potential solutions, students are expected to not only consider a wide range of criteria, but to also recognize that criteria need to be prioritized. For example, public safety or environmental protection may be more important than cost or even functionality. Decisions on priorities can then guide tradeoff choices. Improving designs at the high school level may involve sophisticated methods, such as using computer simulations to model proposed solutions. Students are expected to use such methods to take into account a range of criteria and constraints, to try to anticipate possible societal and environmental impacts, and to test the validity of their simulations by comparison to the real world. Connections with other science disciplines help high school students develop these capabilities in various contexts. For example, in the life sciences students are expected to design, evaluate, and refine a solu- tion for reducing human impact on the environment (HS-LS2-7) and to create or revise a simulation to test solutions for mitigating adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity (HS-LS4-6). In the physical sciences students solve problems by applying their engineering capabilities along with their knowledge of conditions for chemical reactions (HS-PS1-6), forces during collisions (HS-PS2-3), and conversion of energy from one form to another (HS-PS3-3). In the earth and space sciences students apply their engi- High School Engineering Design neering capabilities to reduce human impacts on Earth systems and improve social and environmental cost–benefit ratios (HS-ESS3-2, HS-ESS3-4). By the end of twelfth grade students are expected to achieve all four HS-ETS1 performance expec- tations (HS-ETS1-1, HS-ETS1-2, HS-ETS1-3, and HS-ETS1-4) related to a single problem in order to understand the interrelated processes of engineering design. These include analyzing major global challenges; quantifying criteria and constraints for solutions; breaking down a complex problem into smaller, more manageable problems; evaluating alternative solutions based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs; and using computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions. While the perfor- mance expectations shown in HS-ETS1 couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include use of many practices that lead to the performance expectations. 128 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas

OCR for page 1
HS‑ETS1 Engineering Design PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and that account for societal needs and wants. environmental impacts. HS-ETS1-2. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem HS-ETS1-4. Use a computer simulation to model the impact by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with that can be solved through engineering. numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. HS-ETS1-3. Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Asking Questions and Defining Problems ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Systems and System Models Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 Engineering Problems • Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer) builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to • Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any can be used to simulate systems and interactions— formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically requirements set by society, such as taking issues including energy, matter, and information flows— testable questions and design problems using models of risk mitigation into account, and they should be within and between systems at different scales. and simulations. quantified to the extent possible and stated in such (HS‑ETS1‑4) • Analyze complex real‑world problems by specifying a way that one can tell if a given design meets criteria and constraints for successful solutions. them. (HS‑ETS1‑1) Connections to Engineering, Technology, and (HS‑ETS1‑1) • Humanity faces major global challenges today, Applications of Science Using Mathematics and Computational such as the need for supplies of clean water and food or for energy sources that minimize pollution, Influence of Science, Engineering, and Thinking Technology on Society and the Natural World Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 which can be addressed through engineering. These global challenges also may have • New technologies can have deep impacts on builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using society and the environment, including some that algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear manifestations in local communities. (HS‑ETS1‑1) were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits and non‑linear functions, including trigonometric ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions is a critical aspect of decisions about technology. functions, exponentials and logarithms, and • When evaluating solutions, it is important to take (HS‑ETS1‑1), (HS‑ETS1‑3) computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, into account a range of constraints, including cost, represent, and model data. Simple computational safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider HS‑ETS1 Engineering Design simulations are created and used based on social, cultural, and environmental impacts. mathematical models of basic assumptions. (HS‑ETS1‑3) • Use mathematical models and/or computer • Both physical models and computers can be used simulations to predict the effects of a design in various ways to aid in the engineering design solution on systems and/or the interactions process. Computers are useful for a variety of between systems. (HS‑ETS1‑4) purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical, and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs. (HS‑ETS1‑4) See connections to HS‑ETS1 on page 162. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas 129

OCR for page 1
HS‑ETS1 Engineering Design (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Constructing Explanations and Designing ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution Solutions • Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler Constructing explanations and designing solutions ones that can be approached systematically, and in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses decisions about the priority of certain criteria over to explanations and designs that are supported by others (tradeoffs) may be needed. (HS‑ETS1‑2) multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. • Design a solution to a complex real‑world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student‑generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS‑ETS1‑2) • Evaluate a solution to a complex real‑world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student‑generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS‑ETS1‑3) HS‑ETS1 Engineering Design (continued  ) 130 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas See connections to HS‑ETS1 on page 162.