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NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS Arranged by Topics Kindergarten Through Fifth Grade. . . . . . . . 164 Fifth Grade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 High School Physical Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . 246 5. Structure and Properties of Matter. . . . . 200 HS. Structure and Properties of Matter. . . . 249 Kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 5. Matter and Energy in Organisms HS. Chemical Reactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 K. Forces and Interactions: and Ecosystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 HS. Forces and Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Pushes and Pulls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 5. Earth’s Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 HS. Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 K. Interdependent Relationships 5. Space Systems: HS. Waves and Electromagnetic in Ecosystems: Animals, Plants, and Stars and the Solar System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Their Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 K. Weather and Climate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 3–5 Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 . . High School Life Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 3-5. Engineering Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 HS. Structure and Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 First Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 HS. Matter and Energy in Organisms 1. Waves: Light and Sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Middle School Physical Sciences . . . . . . . . . 208 and Ecosystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 1. Structure, Function, and MS. Structure and Properties of Matter . . . 211 HS. Interdependent Relationships Information Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 MS. Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 in Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 1. Space Systems: Patterns and Cycles. . . . . 176 MS. Forces and Interactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 HS. Inheritance and Variation of Traits. . . . 270 MS. Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Second Grade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 HS. Natural Selection and Evolution . . . . . . 272 MS. Waves and Electromagnetic 2. Structure and Properties of Matter. . . . . 178 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 High School Earth and Space Sciences . . . . 275 2. Interdependent Relationships HS. Space Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 in Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Middle School Life Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 HS. History of Earth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Next Generation Science Standards — Arranged by Topics 2. Earth’s Systems: MS. Structure, Function, and HS. Earth’s Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Processes That Shape the Earth . . . . . . . 181 . . Information Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 HS. Weather and Climate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 MS. Matter and Energy in Organisms K–2 Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 HS. Human Sustainability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 and Ecosystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 K-2. Engineering Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 MS. Interdependent Relationships High School Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . 290 Third Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 . . in Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 HS. Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 . . 3. Forces and Interactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 MS. Growth, Development, and Connections to Standards Arranged by 3. Interdependent Relationships Reproduction of Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 in Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 MS. Natural Selection and Adaptations . . . 230 3. Inheritance and Variation of Traits: Middle School Earth and Space Sciences. . . 232 Life Cycles and Traits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 MS. Space Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 3. Weather and Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 MS. History of Earth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Fourth Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 MS. Earth’s Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 4. Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 MS. Weather and Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4. Waves: Waves and Information. . . . . . . . 195 MS. Human Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4. Structure, Function, and Middle School Engineering Design . . . . . . . 243 Information Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 MS. Engineering Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 4. Earth’s Systems: Processes That Shape the Earth . . . . . . . . . 197 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 163

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KINDERGARTEN THROUGH FIFTH GRADE Students in kindergarten through fifth grade begin to develop an understanding of the four disciplin- ary core ideas: physical sciences; life sciences; earth and space sciences; and engineering, technology, and applications of science. In the earlier grades, students begin by recognizing patterns and formulating answers to questions about the world around them. By the end of fifth grade, students should be able to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in gathering, describing, and using information about the natural and designed world(s). The performance expectations in elementary school grade bands develop ideas and skills that will allow students to explain more complex phenomena in the four disciplines as they progress to middle school and high school. While the performance expectations shown in kindergarten through fifth grade couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include use of many practices that lead to the performance expectations. Kindergarten Through Fifth Grade 164 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics

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KINDERGARTEN The performance expectations in kindergarten help students formulate answers to questions such as: “What happens if you push or pull an object harder? Where do animals live and why do they live there? What is the weather like today and how is it different from yesterday?” Kindergarten perfor- mance expectations include PS2, PS3, LS1, ESS2, ESS3, and ETS1 Disciplinary Core Ideas from the NRC Framework. Students are expected to develop understanding of patterns and variations in local weather and the purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for, and respond to, severe weather. Students are able to apply an understanding of the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object to analyze a design solution. Students are also expected to develop under- standing of what plants and animals (including humans) need to survive and the relationship between their needs and where they live. The crosscutting concepts of patterns; cause and effect; systems and system models; interdependence of science, engineering, and technology; and influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In the kindergarten performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in asking questions, developing and using models, planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, designing solutions, engaging in argument from evidence, and obtain- ing, evaluating, and communicating information. Students are expected to use these practices to dem- onstrate understanding of the core ideas. Kindergarten NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 165

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K. Forces and Interactions: Pushes and Pulls PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: K-PS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the K-PS2-2. Analyze data to determine if a design solution works effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a and pulls on the motion of an object. [Clarification Statement: push or a pull.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of problems requiring Examples of pushes or pulls could include a string attached to an object a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain being pulled, a person pushing an object, a person stopping a rolling ball, distance, follow a particular path, and knock down other objects. Examples and two objects colliding and pushing on each other.] [Assessment Boundary: of solutions could include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of an Assessment is limited to different relative strengths or different directions, object and a structure that would cause an object such as a marble or ball but not both at the same time. Assessment does not include non-contact to turn.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include friction as a pushes or pulls such as those produced by magnets.] mechanism for change in speed.] *This performance expectation integrates traditional science content with engineering through a practice or disciplinary core idea. Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Planning and Carrying Out Investigations PS2.A: Forces and Motion Cause and Effect Planning and carrying out investigations to answer • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 directions. (K-PS2-1), (K-PS2-2) to support or refute student ideas about causes. builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the (K-PS2-1), (K-PS2-2) investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data speed or direction of its motion and can start or to support explanations or design solutions. stop it. (K-PS2-1), (K-PS2-2) • With guidance, plan and conduct an investigation PS2.B: Types of Interactions in collaboration with peers. (K-PS2-1) • When objects touch or collide, they push on one Analyzing and Interpreting Data another and can change motion. (K-PS2-1) Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and K. Forces and Interactions: Pushes and Pulls and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing Forces observations. • A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or • Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to slow down more quickly. (secondary to K-PS2-1) determine if it works as intended. (K-PS2-2) ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems • A situation that people want to change or create Connections to Nature of Science can be approached as a problem to be solved Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of through engineering. Such problems may have Methods many acceptable solutions. (secondary to K-PS2-2) • Scientists use different ways to study the world. (K-PS2-1) 166 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics See connections to K. Forces and Interactions on page 293.

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K. Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Animals, Plants, and Their Environment PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: K-LS1-1. Use observations to describe patterns of what plants the places they live. [Clarification Statement: Examples of relationships and animals (including humans) need to survive. [Clarification could include that deer eat buds and leaves and therefore usually live Statement: Examples of patterns could include that animals need to take in in forested areas and that grasses need sunlight so they often grow in food but plants do not, the different kinds of food needed by different types meadows. Plants, animals, and their surroundings make up a system.] of animals, the requirement of plants to have light, and that all living things K-ESS3-3. Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of need water.] humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the K. Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Animals, Plants, and Their Environment K-ESS2-2. Construct an argument supported by evidence for local environment.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of human impact how plants and animals (including humans) can change the on land could include cutting trees to produce paper and using resources environment to meet their needs. [Clarification Statement: Examples to produce bottles. Examples of solutions could include reusing paper and of plants and animals changing their environment could include a squirrel recycling cans and bottles.] digging in the ground to hide its food and that tree roots can break concrete.] *This performance expectation integrates traditional science content with engineering through a practice or disciplinary core idea. K-ESS3-1. Use a model to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants or animals (including humans) and Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Developing and Using Models LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Patterns Modeling in K–2 builds on prior experiences and Flow in Organisms • Patterns in the natural and human designed world progresses to include using and developing models • All animals need food in order to live and grow. can be observed and used as evidence. (K-LS1-1) (i.e., diagram, drawing, physical replica, diorama, They obtain their food from plants or from other Cause and Effect dramatization, or storyboard) that represent concrete animals. Plants need water and light to live and • Events have causes that generate observable events or design solutions. grow. (K-LS1-1) patterns. (K-ESS3-3) • Use a model to represent relationships in the ESS2.E: Biogeology natural world. (K-ESS3-1) Systems and System Models • Plants and animals can change their environment. • Systems in the natural and designed world have Analyzing and Interpreting Data (K-ESS2-2) parts that work together. (K-ESS2-2),(K-ESS3-1) Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences ESS3.A: Natural Resources and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing • Living things need water, air, and resources from observations. the land, and they live in places that have the • Use observations (firsthand or from media) to things they need. Humans use natural resources for describe patterns in the natural world in order to everything they do. (K-ESS3-1) answer scientific questions. (K-LS1-1) ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems Engaging in Argument from Evidence • Things that people do to live comfortably can Engaging in argument from evidence in K–2 builds on affect the world around them. But they can make prior experiences and progresses to comparing ideas choices that reduce their impacts on the land, and representations about the natural and designed water, air, and other living things. (secondary to world(s). K-ESS2-2), (K-ESS3-3) • Construct an argument with evidence to support a claim. (K-ESS2-2) See connections to K. Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems on page 293. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 167

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K. Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Animals, Plants, and Their Environment (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions Information • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, K. Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Animals, Plants, and Their Environment (continued  ) Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating drawings, or physical models. These information in K–2 builds on prior experiences and representations are useful in communicating uses observations and texts to communicate new ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. information. (secondary to K-ESS3-3) • Communicate solutions with others in oral and/or written forms using models and/or drawings that provide detail about scientific ideas. (K-ESS3-3) Connections to Nature of Science Scientific Knowledge Is Based on Empirical Evidence • Scientists look for patterns and order when making observations about the world. (K-LS1-1) 168 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics See connections to K. Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems on page 293.

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K. Weather and Climate PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: K‑ESS2‑1. Use and share observations of local weather severe weather.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on local forms of conditions to describe patterns over time. [Clarification Statement: severe weather.] Examples of qualitative observations could include descriptions of the K‑PS3‑1. Make observations to determine the effect of sunlight weather (such as sunny, cloudy, rainy, and warm); examples of quantitative on Earth’s surface. [Clarification Statement: Examples of Earth’s surface observations could include numbers of sunny, windy, and rainy days in a could include sand, soil, rocks, and water.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment month. Examples of patterns could include that it is usually cooler in the of temperature is limited to relative measures such as warmer/cooler.] morning than in the afternoon and the number of sunny days versus cloudy days in different months.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of quantitative K‑PS3‑2. Use tools and materials to design and build a structure observations is limited to whole numbers and relative measures such as that will reduce the warming effect of sunlight on an area.* warmer/cooler.] [Clarification Statement: Examples of structures could include umbrellas, canopies, and tents that minimize the warming effect of the sun.] K‑ESS3‑2. Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for, and respond to, *This performance expectation integrates traditional science content with engineering through a practice or disciplinary core idea. Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Asking Questions and Defining Problems PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Patterns Asking questions and defining problems in K–2 Transfer • Patterns in the natural world can be observed, used builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple • Sunlight warms Earth’s surface. (K‑PS3‑1), (K‑PS3‑2) to describe phenomena, and used as evidence. descriptive questions that can be tested. ESS2.D: Weather and Climate (K‑ESS2‑1) • Ask questions based on observations to find more • Weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, Cause and Effect information about the designed world. (K‑ESS3‑2) snow or rain, and temperature in a particular • Events have causes that generate observable Planning and Carrying Out Investigations region at a particular time. People measure these patterns. (K‑ESS3‑2), (K‑PS3‑1), (K‑PS3‑2) Planning and carrying out investigations to answer conditions to describe and record the weather and questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 to notice patterns over time. (K‑ESS2‑1) Connections to Engineering, Technology, and builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple ESS3.B: Natural Hazards Applications of Science investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data • Some kinds of severe weather are more likely to support explanations or design solutions. Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and than others in a given region. Weather scientists Technology • Make observations (firsthand or from media) to forecast severe weather so that communities collect data that can be used to make comparisons. • People encounter questions about the natural can prepare for and respond to these events. world every day. (K‑ESS3‑2) (K‑PS3‑1) (K‑ESS3‑2) Analyzing and Interpreting Data Influence of Engineering, Technology, and K. Weather and Climate ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Science on Society and the Natural World Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences Engineering Problem and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing • People depend on various technologies in their • Asking questions, making observations, and lives; human life would be very different without observations. gathering information are helpful in thinking about • Use observations (firsthand or from media) to technology. (K‑ESS3‑2) problems. (secondary to K‑ESS3‑2) describe patterns in the natural world in order to answer scientific questions. (K‑ESS2‑1) See connections to K. Weather and Climate on page 293. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 169

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K. Weather and Climate (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions Constructing explanations and designing solutions in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to the use of evidence and ideas in constructing evidence‑based accounts of natural phenomena and designing solutions. • Use tools and materials provided to design and build a device that solves a specific problem or a solution to a specific problem. (K‑PS3‑2) Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in K–2 builds on prior experiences and uses observations and texts to communicate new information. • Read grade‑appropriate texts and/or use media to obtain scientific information to describe patterns in the natural world. (K‑ESS3‑2) Connections to Nature of Science Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods • Scientists use different ways to study the world. (K‑PS3‑1) Scientific Knowledge Is Based on Empirical K. Weather and Climate (continued  ) Evidence • Scientists look for patterns and order when making observations about the world. (K‑ESS2‑1) 170 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics See connections to K. Weather and Climate on page 293.

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FIRST GRADE The performance expectations in first grade help students formulate answers to questions such as: “What happens when materials vibrate? What happens when there is no light? What are some ways plants and animals meet their needs so that they can survive and grow? How are parents and their children similar and different? What objects are in the sky and how do they seem to move?” First grade performance expectations include PS4, LS1, LS3, and ESS1 Disciplinary Core Ideas from the NRC Framework. Students are expected to develop understanding of the relationship between sound and vibrating mate- rials as well as between the availability of light and the ability to see objects. The idea that light travels from place to place can be understood by students at this level through determining the effect of plac- ing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light. Students are also expected to develop understanding of how plants and animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs as well as how the behaviors of parents and offspring help offspring survive. The understanding is developed that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly the same as, their parents. Students are able to observe, describe, and predict some patterns of the movement of objects in the sky. The crosscutting concepts of patterns; cause and effect; structure and function; and influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In the first grade performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, construct- ing explanations and designing solutions, and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. Students are expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas. First Grade NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 171

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1. Waves: Light and Sound PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: 1‑PS4‑1. Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence 1‑PS4‑3. Plan and conduct an investigation to determine the that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path make materials vibrate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of vibrating of a beam of light. [Clarification Statement: Examples of materials could materials that make sound could include tuning forks and plucking a include those that are transparent (such as clear plastic), translucent (such as stretched string. Examples of how sound can make matter vibrate could wax paper), opaque (such as cardboard), and reflective (such as a mirror).] include holding a piece of paper near a speaker making sound and holding [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the speed of light.] an object near a vibrating tuning fork.] 1‑PS4‑4. Use tools and materials to design and build a device 1‑PS4‑2. Make observations to construct an evidence‑based that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating account that objects can be seen only when illuminated. over a distance.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could [Clarification Statement: Examples of observations could include those made include a light source to send signals, paper cup and string “telephones,” in a completely dark room, a pinhole box, and a video of a cave explorer and a pattern of drum beats.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not with a flashlight. Illumination could be from an external light source or by include technological details for how communication devices work.] an object giving off its own light.] *This performance expectation integrates traditional science content with engineering through a practice or disciplinary core idea. Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Planning and Carrying Out Investigations PS4.A: Wave Properties Cause and Effect Planning and carrying out investigations to answer • Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 matter can make sound. (1‑PS4‑1) to support or refute student ideas about causes. builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation (1‑PS4‑1), (1‑PS4‑2), (1‑PS4‑3) investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data • Objects can be seen if light is available to to support explanations or design solutions. illuminate them or if they give off their own light. Connections to Engineering, Technology, and • Plan and conduct investigations collaboratively to (1‑PS4‑2) Applications of Science produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to • Some materials allow light to pass through them, answer a question. (1‑PS4‑1),(1‑PS4‑3) Influence of Engineering, Technology, and others allow only some light through, and others Science on Society and the Natural World Constructing Explanations and Designing block all the light and create a dark shadow on • People depend on various technologies in their Solutions any surface beyond them, where the light cannot lives; human life would be very different without Constructing explanations and designing solutions in reach. Mirrors can be used to redirect a light beam. technology. (1‑PS4‑4) K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to the (Boundary: The idea that light travels from place to use of evidence and ideas in constructing evidence- place is developed through experiences with light 1. Waves: Light and Sound based accounts of natural phenomena and designing sources, mirrors, and shadows, but no attempt is solutions. made to discuss the speed of light.) (1‑PS4‑3) • Make observations (firsthand or from media) to PS4.C: Information Technologies and construct an evidence‑based account for natural Instrumentation phenomena. (1‑PS4‑2) • People also use a variety of devices to • Use tools and materials provided to design a communicate (send and receive information) over device that solves a specific problem. (1‑PS4‑4) long distances. (1‑PS4‑4) 172 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics See connections to 1. Waves on page 294.

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1. Waves: Light and Sound (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Connections to Nature of Science Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods • Science investigations begin with a question. (1‑PS4‑1) • Scientists use different ways to study the world. (1‑PS4‑1) 1. Waves: Light and Sound (continued  ) See connections to 1. Waves on page 294. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 173

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HS. Earth’s Systems PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS‑ESS2‑2. Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that commonly known as the rock cycle. Examples of mechanical investigations one change to Earth’s surface can create feedbacks that cause include stream transportation and deposition using a stream table, erosion changes to other Earth systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples using variations in soil moisture content, and frost wedging by the expansion should include climate feedbacks, such as how an increase in greenhouse of water as it freezes. Examples of chemical investigations include chemical gases causes a rise in global temperatures that melts glacial ice, which weathering and recrystallization (by testing the solubility of different reduces the amount of sunlight reflected from Earth’s surface, increasing materials) or melt generation (by examining how water lowers the melting surface temperatures and further reducing the amount of ice. Examples temperature of most solids).] could also be taken from other system interactions, such as how the loss of HS‑ESS2‑6. Develop a quantitative model to describe the ground vegetation causes an increase in water runoff and soil erosion; how cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, dammed rivers increase groundwater recharge, decrease sediment transport, geosphere, and biosphere. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on and increase coastal erosion; and how the loss of wetlands causes a decrease modeling biogeochemical cycles that include the cycling of carbon through in local humidity that further reduces the wetlands’ extent.] the ocean, atmosphere, soil, and biosphere (including humans), providing HS‑ESS2‑3. Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s the foundation for living organisms.] interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection. HS‑ESS2‑7. Construct an argument based on evidence about [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both a one‑dimensional model of the simultaneous co-evolution of Earth’s systems and life on Earth, with radial layers determined by density, and a three‑dimensional Earth. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the dynamic causes, effects, model, which is controlled by mantle convection and the resulting plate and feedbacks between the biosphere and Earth’s other systems, whereby tectonics. Examples of evidence include maps of Earth’s three‑dimensional geoscience factors control the evolution of life, which in turn continuously structure obtained from seismic waves, records of the rate of change of alters Earth’s surface. Examples include how photosynthetic life altered the Earth’s magnetic field (as constraints on convection in the outer core), atmosphere through the production of oxygen, which in turn increased and identification of the composition of Earth’s layers from high‑pressure weathering rates and allowed for the evolution of animal life; how microbial laboratory experiments.] life on land increased the formation of soil, which in turn allowed for the HS‑ESS2‑5. Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties evolution of land plants; and how the evolution of corals created reefs that of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. altered patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines and provided [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on mechanical and chemical habitats for the evolution of new life forms.] [Assessment Boundary: investigations with water and a variety of solid materials to provide evidence Assessment does not include a comprehensive understanding of the for the connections between the hydrologic cycle and system interactions mechanisms of how the biosphere interacts with all of Earth’s other systems.] Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Developing and Using Models ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems Energy and Matter Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and • Earth’s systems, being dynamic and interacting, • The total amount of energy and matter in closed progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing cause feedback effects that can increase or systems is conserved. (HS‑ESS2‑6) models to predict and show relationships among decrease the original changes (HS‑ESS2‑2) • Energy drives the cycling of matter within and variables between systems and their components in between systems. (HS‑ESS2‑3) HS. Earth’s Systems the natural and designed world(s). Structure and Function • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate • The functions and properties of natural and the relationships between systems or between designed objects and systems can be inferred from components of a system. (HS‑ESS2‑3), (HS‑ESS2‑6) their overall structure, the way their components are shaped and used, and the molecular sub‑structures of their various materials. (HS‑ESS2‑5) 282 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics See connections to HS. Earth’s Systems on page 322.

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HS. Earth’s Systems (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Planning and Carrying Out Investigations • Evidence from deep probes and seismic Stability and Change Planning and carrying out investigations in 9–12 waves, reconstructions of historical changes in • Much of science deals with constructing builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include Earth’s surface and its magnetic field, and an explanations of how things change and how they investigations that provide evidence for and test understanding of physical and chemical processes remain stable. (HS‑ESS2‑7) conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical lead to a model of Earth with a hot but solid • Change and rates of change can be quantified models. inner core, a liquid outer core, and a solid mantle and modeled over very short or very long periods • Plan and conduct an investigation individually and crust. Motions of the mantle and its plates of time. Some system changes are irreversible. and collaboratively to produce data to serve as occur primarily through thermal convection, (HS‑ESS2‑1) the basis for evidence, and in the design decide which involves the cycling of matter due to the • Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed outward flow of energy from Earth’s interior destabilize a system. (HS‑ESS2‑2) to produce reliable measurements and consider and gravitational movement of denser materials limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., toward the interior. (HS‑ESS2‑3) Connections to Engineering, Technology, and number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large‑Scale Applications of Science design accordingly. (HS‑ESS2‑5) System Interactions Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Analyzing and Interpreting Data • The radioactive decay of unstable isotopes Technology Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences continually generates new energy within Earth’s • Science and engineering complement each other and progresses to introducing more detailed crust and mantle, providing the primary source in the cycle known as research and development statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for of the heat that drives mantle convection. Plate (R&D). Many R&D projects may involve scientists, consistency, and the use of models to generate and tectonics can be viewed as the surface expression engineers, and others with wide ranges of analyze data. of mantle convection. (HS‑ESS2‑3) expertise. (HS‑ESS2‑3) • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Surface Processes Science on Society and the Natural World order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or • The abundance of liquid water on Earth’s surface determine an optimal design solution. (HS‑ESS2‑2) • New technologies can have deep impacts on and its unique combination of physical and society and the environment, including some that Engaging in Argument from Evidence chemical properties are central to the planet’s were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 dynamics. These properties include water’s is a critical aspect of decisions about technology. builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to exceptional capacity to absorb, store, and release (HS‑ESS2‑2) using appropriate and sufficient evidence and large amounts of energy, transmit sunlight, expand HS. Earth’s Systems (continued  ) scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims upon freezing, dissolve and transport materials, and explanations about the natural and designed and lower the viscosities and melting points of world(s). Arguments may also come from current rocks. (HS‑ESS2‑5) scientific or historical episodes in science. ESS2.D: Weather and Climate • Construct an oral and written argument or • The foundation for Earth’s global climate systems counter‑arguments based on data and evidence. is the electromagnetic radiation from the sun, (HS‑ESS2‑7) as well as its reflection, absorption, storage, and redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and land systems, and this energy’s re‑radiation into space. (HS‑ESS2‑2) See connections to HS. Earth’s Systems on page 322. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 283

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HS. Earth’s Systems (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts • Gradual atmospheric changes were due to plants Connections to Nature of Science and other organisms that captured carbon dioxide Scientific Knowledge Is Based on Empirical and released oxygen. (HS‑ESS2‑6), (HS‑ESS2‑7) Evidence • Changes in the atmosphere due to human activity • Scientific knowledge is based on empirical have increased carbon dioxide concentrations and evidence. (HS‑ESS2‑3) thus affect climate. (HS‑ESS2‑6) • Science disciplines share common rules of evidence ESS2.E: Biogeology used to evaluate explanations about natural • The many dynamic and delicate feedbacks systems. (HS‑ESS2‑3) between the biosphere and other Earth systems • Science includes the process of coordinating cause a continual co‑evolution of Earth’s surface patterns of evidence with current theory. and the life that exists on it. (HS‑ESS2‑7) (HS‑ESS2‑3) PS4.A: Wave Properties • Geologists use seismic waves and their reflection at interfaces between layers to probe structures deep in the planet. (secondary to HS‑ESS2‑3) HS. Earth’s Systems (continued  ) 284 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics See connections to HS. Earth’s Systems on page 322.

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HS. Weather and Climate PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS‑ESS2‑4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow HS‑ESS3‑5. Analyze geoscience data and the results from global of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes climate models to make an evidence‑based forecast of the in climate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of the causes of climate current rate of global or regional climate change and associated change differ by timescale, over 1–10 years: large volcanic eruptions, ocean future impacts to Earth’s systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples circulation; 10s–100s of years: changes in human activity, ocean circulation, of evidence, for both data and climate model outputs, are for climate solar output; 10s–100s of thousands of years: changes to Earth’s orbit and the changes (such as precipitation and temperature) and their associated orientation of its axis; and 10s–100s of millions of years: long-term changes in impacts (such as on sea level, glacial ice volumes, and atmosphere and ocean atmospheric composition.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of the results of composition).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one example changes in climate is limited to changes in surface temperatures, precipitation of a climate change and its associated impacts.] patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, and biosphere distribution.] Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Developing and Using Models ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System Cause and Effect Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and • Cyclical changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing around the sun, together with changes in the tilt between cause and correlation and make claims models to predict and show relationships among of the planet’s axis of rotation, both occurring over about specific causes and effects. (HS‑ESS2‑4) variables between systems and their components in hundreds of thousands of years, have altered the Stability and Change the natural and designed world(s). intensity and distribution of sunlight falling on • Change and rates of change can be quantified • Use a model to provide mechanistic accounts of Earth. These phenomena cause a cycle of ice ages and modeled over very short or very long periods phenomena. (HS‑ESS2‑4) and other gradual climate changes. (secondary to of time. Some system changes are irreversible. Analyzing and Interpreting Data HS‑ESS2‑4) (HS‑ESS3‑5) Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems and progresses to introducing more detailed • The geologic record shows that changes to global statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for and regional climate can be caused by interactions consistency, and the use of models to generate and among changes in the sun’s energy output or analyze data. Earth’s orbit, tectonic events, ocean circulation, • Analyze data using computational models in volcanic activity, glaciers, vegetation, and human order to make valid and reliable scientific claims. activities. These changes can occur on a variety (HS‑ESS3‑5) of timescales from sudden (e.g., volcanic ash clouds) to intermediate (ice ages) to very long‑term HS. Weather and Climate Connections to Nature of Science tectonic cycles. (HS‑ESS2‑4) Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of ESS2.D: Weather and Climate Methods • The foundation for Earth’s global climate systems • Scientific investigations use diverse methods and is the electromagnetic radiation from the sun, do not always use the same set of procedures to as well as its reflection, absorption, storage, and obtain data. (HS‑ESS3‑5) redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and • New technologies advance scientific knowledge. land systems and this energy’s re‑radiation into (HS‑ESS3‑5) space. (HS‑ESS2‑4), (secondary to HS‑ESS2‑2) See connections to HS. Weather and Climate on page 323. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 285

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HS. Weather and Climate (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Scientific Knowledge Is Based on Empirical • Changes in the atmosphere due to human activity Evidence have increased carbon dioxide concentrations and • Scientific knowledge is based on empirical thus affect climate. (HS‑ESS2‑4) evidence. (HS‑ESS3‑5) ESS3.D: Global Climate Change • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple • Though the magnitudes of human impacts are lines of evidence supporting a single explanation. greater than they have ever been, so too are (HS‑ESS2‑4), (HS‑ESS3‑5) human abilities to model, predict, and manage current and future impacts. (HS‑ESS3‑5) HS. Weather and Climate (continued  ) 286 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics See connections to HS. Weather and Climate on page 323.

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HS. Human Sustainability PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS‑ESS3‑1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for factors that affect human sustainability include agricultural efficiency, levels how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural of conservation, and urban planning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity. for computational simulations is limited to using provided multi‑parameter [Clarification Statement: Examples of key natural resources include access to programs or constructing simplified spreadsheet calculations.] fresh water (such as rivers, lakes, and groundwater), regions of fertile soils HS‑ESS3‑4. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that such as river deltas, and high concentrations of minerals and fossil fuels. reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.* Examples of natural hazards can be from interior processes (such as volcanic [Clarification Statement: Examples of data on the impacts of human activities eruptions and earthquakes), surface processes (such as tsunamis, mass could include the quantities and types of pollutants released, changes to wasting, and soil erosion), and severe weather (such as hurricanes, floods, biomass and species diversity, or areal changes in land surface use (such and droughts). Examples of the results of changes in climate that can affect as for urban development, agriculture and livestock, or surface mining). populations or drive mass migrations include changes to sea level, regional Examples for limiting future impacts could range from local efforts (such as patterns of temperature and precipitation, and the types of crops and reducing, reusing, and recycling resources) to large‑scale geoengineering livestock that can be raised.] design solutions (such as altering global temperatures by making large HS‑ESS3‑2. Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, changes to the atmosphere or ocean).] managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based HS‑ESS3‑6. Use a computational representation to illustrate the on cost‑benefit ratios.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships conservation, recycling, and reuse of resources (such as minerals and metals) are being modified due to human activity.* [Clarification where possible and on minimizing impacts where it is not. Examples include Statement: Examples of Earth systems to be considered are the hydrosphere, developing best practices for agricultural soil use, mining (for coal, tar sands, atmosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and/or biosphere. An example of the and oil shales), and pumping (for petroleum and natural gas). Scientific far‑reaching impacts from a human activity is how an increase in atmospheric knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems—not what carbon dioxide results in an increase in photosynthetic biomass on land and should happen.] an increase in ocean acidification, with resulting impacts on sea organism HS‑ESS3‑3. Create a computational simulation to illustrate the health and marine populations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not relationships among the management of natural resources, the include running computational representations but is limited to using the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity. [Clarification published results of scientific computational models.] Statement: Examples of factors that affect the management of natural *This performance expectation integrates traditional science content with engineering resources include the costs of resource extraction and waste management, through a practice or disciplinary core idea. per‑capita consumption, and development of new technologies. Examples of Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Using Mathematics and Computational ESS2.D: Weather and Climate Cause and Effect Thinking • Current models predict that, although future • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate HS. Human Sustainability Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 regional climate changes will be complex and between cause and correlation and make claims builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using varied, average global temperatures will continue about specific causes and effects. (HS‑ESS3‑1) algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear to rise. The outcomes predicted by global climate Systems and System Models and non‑linear functions, including trigonometric models strongly depend on the amounts of • When investigating or describing a system, the functions, exponentials and logarithms, and human‑generated greenhouse gases added to boundaries and initial conditions of the system computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, the atmosphere each year and by the ways in need to be defined and their inputs and outputs represent, and model data. Simple computational which these gases are absorbed by the ocean and analyzed and described using models. (HS‑ESS3‑6) simulations are created and used based on biosphere. (secondary to HS‑ESS3‑6) mathematical models of basic assumptions. See connections to HS. Human Sustainability on page 323. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 287

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HS. Human Sustainability (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts • Create a computational model or simulation of a ESS3.A: Natural Resources Stability and Change phenomenon, designed device, process, or system. • Resource availability has guided the development • Change and rates of change can be quantified and (HS‑ESS3‑3) of human society. (HS‑ESS3‑1) modeled over very short or very long periods of time. • Use a computational representation of phenomena • All forms of energy production and other resource Some system changes are irreversible. (HS‑ESS3‑3) or design solutions to describe and/or support extraction have associated economic, social, • Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or claims and/or explanations. (HS‑ESS3‑6) environmental, and geopolitical costs and risks destabilize a system. (HS‑ESS3‑4) Constructing Explanations and Designing as well as benefits. New technologies and social Solutions regulations can change the balance of these Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Constructing explanations and designing solutions factors. (HS‑ESS3‑2) Applications of Science in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses ESS3.B: Natural Hazards Influence of Engineering, Technology, and to explanations and designs that are supported by • Natural hazards and other geologic events Science on Society and the Natural World multiple and independent student‑generated sources have shaped the course of human history; they • Modern civilization depends on major of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, have significantly altered the sizes of human technological systems. (HS‑ESS3‑1), (HS‑ESS3‑3) principles, and theories. populations and have driven human migrations. • Engineers continuously modify these systems to • Construct an explanation based on valid and (HS‑ESS3‑1) increase benefits while decreasing costs and risks. reliable evidence obtained from a variety of ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems (HS‑ESS3‑2), (HS‑ESS3‑4) sources (including students’ own investigations, • The sustainability of human societies and the • New technologies can have deep impacts on models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the biodiversity that supports them require responsible society and the environment, including some that assumption that theories and laws that describe the management of natural resources. (HS‑ESS3‑3) were not anticipated. (HS‑ESS3‑3) natural world operate today as they did in the past • Scientists and engineers can make major • Analysis of costs and benefits is a critical aspect of and will continue to do so in the future. (HS‑ESS3‑1) contributions by developing technologies that decisions about technology. (HS‑ESS3‑2) • Design or refine a solution to a complex real‑world produce less pollution and waste and that preclude problem, based on scientific knowledge, ecosystem degradation. (HS‑ESS3‑4) student‑generated sources of evidence, prioritized Connections to Nature of Science criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS‑ESS3‑4) ESS3.D: Global Climate Change Science Is a Human Endeavor • Through computer simulations and other studies, • Scientific knowledge is a result of human Engaging in Argument from Evidence important discoveries are still being made about endeavors, imagination, and creativity. (HS‑ESS3‑3) HS. Human Sustainability (continued  ) Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 how the ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere interact builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to and are modified in response to human activities. Science Addresses Questions About the using appropriate and sufficient evidence and (HS‑ESS3‑6) Natural and Material World scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims • Science and technology may raise ethical issues for and explanations about the natural and designed ETS1.B. Designing Solutions to Engineering which science, by itself, does not provide answers world(s). Arguments may also come from current Problems and solutions. (HS‑ESS3‑2) scientific or historical episodes in science. • When evaluating solutions, it is important to take • Scientific knowledge indicates what can happen • Evaluate competing design solutions to a into account a range of constraints, including in natural systems—not what should happen. The real‑world problem based on scientific ideas cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to latter involves ethics, values, and human decisions and principles, empirical evidence, and logical consider social, cultural, and environmental about the use of knowledge. (HS‑ESS3‑2) arguments regarding relevant factors (e.g., impacts. (secondary to HS‑ESS3‑2), (secondary to • Many decisions are not made using science alone, economic, societal, environmental, ethical HS‑ESS3‑4) but rely on social and cultural contexts to resolve considerations). (HS‑ESS3‑2) issues. (HS‑ESS3‑2) 288 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics See connections to HS. Human Sustainability on page 323.

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HS. Human Sustainability (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Connections to Nature of Science Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods • Scientific investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the same set of procedures to obtain data. (HS‑ESS3‑5) • New technologies advance scientific knowledge. (HS‑ESS3‑5) • Scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include logical thinking, precision, open‑mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest and ethical reporting of findings. Scientific Knowledge Is Based on Empirical Evidence • Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence. (HS‑ESS3‑5) • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation. (HS‑ESS3‑5) HS. Human Sustainability (continued  ) See connections to HS. Human Sustainability on page 323. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 289

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HIGH SCHOOL ENGINEERING DESIGN At the high school level students are expected to engage with major global issues at the interface of science, technology, society, and the environment and to bring to bear the kinds of analytical and stra- tegic thinking that prior training and increased maturity make possible. As in prior levels, these capa- bilities can be thought of in three stages—defining the problem, developing possible solutions, and improving designs. Defining the problem at the high school level requires both qualitative and quantitative analyses. For example, the need to provide food and fresh water for future generations comes into sharp focus when considering the speed at which the world’s population is growing and the conditions in countries that have experienced famine. While high school students are not expected to solve these challenges, they are expected to begin thinking about them as problems that can be addressed, at least in part, through engineering. Developing possible solutions for major global problems begins by breaking them down into smaller problems that can be tackled with engineering methods. To evaluate potential solutions, students are expected to not only consider a wide range of criteria, but to also recognize that criteria need to be prioritized. For example, public safety or environmental protection may be more important than cost or even functionality. Decisions on priorities can then guide tradeoff choices. Improving designs at the high school level may involve sophisticated methods, such as using com- puter simulations to model proposed solutions. Students are expected to use such methods to take into account a range of criteria and constraints, to try to anticipate possible societal and environmental impacts, and to test the validity of their simulations by comparison to the real world. Connections with other science disciplines help high school students develop these capabilities in vari- ous contexts. For example, in the life sciences students are expected to design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing human impacts on the environment (HS-LS2-7) and to create or revise a simula- tion to test solutions for mitigating adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity (HS-LS4-6). In the physical sciences students solve problems by applying their engineering capabilities along with their knowledge of conditions for chemical reactions (HS-PS1-6), forces during collisions (HS-PS2-3), and con- version of energy from one form to another (HS-PS3-3). In the earth and space sciences students apply High School Engineering Design their engineering capabilities to reduce human impacts on Earth systems and improve social and envi- ronmental cost–benefit ratios (HS-ESS3-2 and HS-ESS3-4). By the end of twelfth grade students are expected to achieve all four HS-ETS1 performance expec- tations (HS-ETS1-1, HS-ETS1-2, HS-ETS1-3, and HS-ETS1-4) related to a single problem in order to understand the interrelated processes of engineering design. These include analyzing major global challenges; quantifying criteria and constraints for solutions; breaking down a complex problem into smaller, more manageable problems; evaluating alternative solutions based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs; and using computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions. While the perfor- mance expectations shown in HS-ETS1 couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include use of many practices that lead to the performance expectations. 290 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics

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HS. Engineering Design PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS‑ETS1‑1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental that account for societal needs and wants. impacts. HS‑ETS1‑2. Design a solution to a complex real‑world problem HS‑ETS1‑4. Use a computer simulation to model the impact by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with that can be solved through engineering. numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. HS‑ETS1‑3. Evaluate a solution to a complex real‑world problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account for Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Asking Questions and Defining Problems ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Systems and System Models Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 Engineering Problems • Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to • Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any computer) can be used to simulate systems and formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically requirements set by society, such as taking issues interactions—including energy, matter, and testable questions and design problems using models of risk mitigation into account, and they should be information flows—within and between systems and simulations. quantified to the extent possible and stated in such at different scales. (HS‑ETS1‑4) • Analyze complex real‑world problems by specifying a way that one can tell if a given design meets criteria and constraints for successful solutions. them. (HS‑ETS1‑1) Connections to Engineering, Technology, and (HS‑ETS1‑1) • Humanity faces major global challenges today, Applications of Science Using Mathematics and Computational such as the need for supplies of clean water and food or for energy sources that minimize pollution, Influence of Science, Engineering, and Thinking Technology on Society and the Natural World Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 which can be addressed through engineering. These global challenges also may have • New technologies can have deep impacts on builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using society and the environment, including some that algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear manifestations in local communities. (HS‑ETS1‑1) were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits and non-linear functions, including trigonometric ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions is a critical aspect of decisions about technology. functions, exponentials and logarithms, and • When evaluating solutions, it is important to take (HS‑ETS1‑1), (HS‑ETS1‑3) computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, into account a range of constraints, including cost, represent, and model data. Simple computational safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider simulations are created and used based on social, cultural, and environmental impacts. mathematical models of basic assumptions. (HS‑ETS1‑3) HS. Engineering Design • Use mathematical models and/or computer simulations to predict the effects of a design solution on systems and/or the interactions between systems. (HS‑ETS1‑4) See connections to HS. Engineering Design on page 324. NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics 291

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HS. Engineering Design (continued  ) Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Constructing Explanations and Designing • Both physical models and computers can be used Solutions in various ways to aid in the engineering design Constructing explanations and designing solutions process. Computers are useful for a variety of in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses purposes, such as running simulations to test to explanations and designs that are supported by different ways of solving a problem or to see multiple and independent student‑generated sources which one is most efficient or economical, and in of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, making a persuasive presentation to a client about and theories. how a given design will meet his or her needs. • Design a solution to a complex real‑world problem, (HS‑ETS1‑4) based on scientific knowledge, student‑generated ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and • Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler tradeoff considerations. (HS‑ETS1‑2) ones that can be approached systematically, and • Evaluate a solution to a complex real‑world decisions about the priority of certain criteria over problem, based on scientific knowledge, others (tradeoffs) may be needed. (HS‑ETS1‑2) student‑generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS‑ETS1‑3) HS. Engineering Design (continued  ) 292 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS — Arranged by Topics See connections to HS. Engineering Design on page 324.