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NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS For States, By States Volume 2: Appendixes NGSS Lead States THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 www.nap.edu International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-27227-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-27227-0 Library of Congress Control Number: 2013939525 Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States is published as a two-volume set: Volume 1: The Standards­­—Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas and by Topics Volume 2: Appendixes Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. © Copyright 2013 by Achieve, Inc. All rights reserved. All sections entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” in Volume 1 are reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K–12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. is a registered trademark of Achieve, Inc., on behalf of the lead states and partners. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this volume are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences or its affiliated institutions. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: NGSS Lead States. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Cover Photo Credits Clockwise, from top right: Elementary school age boy with magnifying glass, ©iStock/fstop123; Tungurahua volcano eruption, ©iStock/Elena Kalistratova; High school students, ©iStock/Christopher Futcher; Sunrise, ©iStock/alxpin; Students in biology lab, ©iStock/fstop123; Buttercup stem, ©iStock/Oliver Sun Kim

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CONTENTS VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES Preface iv National Research Council Review of the Next Generation Science Standards v Glossary vi Appendixes A Conceptual Shifts in the Next Generation Science Standards 1 B Responses to the Public Drafts 5 C College and Career Readiness 11 D “All Standards, All Students”: Making the Next Generation Science Standards Accessible to All Students 25 E Disciplinary Core Idea Progressions in the Next Generation Science Standards 40 F Science and Engineering Practices in the Next Generation Science Standards 48 G Crosscutting Concepts in the Next Generation Science Standards 79 H Understanding the Scientific Enterprise: The Nature of Science in the Next Generation Science Standards 96 I Engineering Design in the Next Generation Science Standards 103 J Science, Technology, Society, and the Environment 108 K Model Course Mapping in Middle and High School for the Next Generation Science Standards 113 L Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics 137 M Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 158 The contents of the first volume of this two-volume publication are listed below. VOLUME 1: THE STANDARDS—ARRANGED BY DISCIPLINARY CORE IDEAS AND BY TOPICS Preface National Research Council Review of the Next Generation Science Standards Acknowledgments Introduction How to Read the Next Generation Science Standards Glossary Next Generation Science Standards Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas Connections to Standards Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas Next Generation Science Standards Arranged by Topics Connections to Standards Arranged by Topics iii

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PREFACE The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), authored by a consortium of 26 states facilitated by Achieve, Inc., are the culmination of a 3-year, multi-step process jointly undertaken by the National Research Council (NRC), the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Achieve, Inc., with support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. The NRC, the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), began the process by releasing A Framework for K–12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas in July 2011. The Framework, authored by a committee of 18 individuals who are nationally and internationally known in their respective fields, describes a new vision for science education rooted in scientific evidence and outlines the knowledge and skills that all students need to learn from kindergarten through the end of high school. It is the foundational document for the NGSS. Following release of the Framework, the consortium of 26 lead partner states, working with a team of 41 writers with expertise in science and science education and facilitated by Achieve, Inc., began the development of rigorous and internationally benchmarked science standards that are faithful to the Framework. As part of the development process, the standards underwent multiple reviews, including two public drafts, allowing anyone interested in science education an opportunity to inform the content and organization of the standards. Thus the NGSS were developed through collaboration between states and other stakeholders in science, science education, higher education, business, and industry. As partners in this endeavor, the NAS, NAE, NRC, and the National Academies Press (NAP) are deeply committed to the NGSS initiative. While this document is not the product of an NRC expert committee, the final version of the standards was reviewed by the NRC and was found to be consistent with the Framework. These standards, built on the Framework, are essential for enhancing learning for all students and should enjoy the widest possible dissemination, given the vital national importance of high-quality education. That is why we decided to publish the NGSS through the NAP, a unit otherwise solely dedicated to publishing the work of this institution. The NGSS represent a crucial step forward in realizing the Framework’s vision for science education in classrooms throughout our nation. The standards alone, however, will not create high-quality learning opportunities for all students. Numerous changes are now required at all levels of the K–12 education system so that the standards can lead to improved science teaching and learning, including modifications to curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional preparation and development for teachers. The scientific and science education communities must continue to work together to create these transformations in order to make the promise of the NGSS a reality for all students. Washington, DC, June 2013 RALPH J. CICERONE CHARLES M. VEST HARVEY V. FINEBERG President President President National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine Chair Vice Chair National Research Council National Research Council iv

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NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL REVIEW OF THE NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS In accordance with the procedures approved by the Executive Office of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE) at the National Research Council (NRC), the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were reviewed in early 2013 by individuals chosen for their technical expertise and familiarity with the Research Council’s 2011 report A Framework for K–12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (Framework). The purpose of the review was to evaluate whether the NGSS, as developed during a 2-year process by 26 lead states under the guidance of Achieve, Inc., remained consistent with the Framework, which was intended to provide the scientific consensus upon which to base new K–12 science standards. The developers of the NGSS used the Framework as the basis for their work in terms of developing both the structure and content of the standards. The NRC asked reviewers to direct their comments to three points: • Are the NGSS consistent with the vision for K–12 science education presented in the Framework? • To what extent do the NGSS follow the specific recommendations for standards developers put forward by the Framework committee (see Chapter 12 of the Framework)? • For consistency with the Framework, are other changes needed? The review process determined that the NGSS, released to the public in April 2013 and published in this volume, are consistent with the content and structure of the Framework. The following individuals participated in the review of the NGSS: Philip Bell, Professor of the Learning Sciences, The Geda and Phil Condit Professor of Science and Math Education, University of Washington; Rodolfo Dirzo, Bing Professor in Ecology, Department of Biology, Stanford University; Kenji Hakuta, Professor of Education, School of Education, Stanford University; Kim A. Kastens, Lamont Research Professor and Adjunct Full Professor, Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University; Jonathan Osborne, Shriram Family Professor of Science Education, Graduate School of Education, Stanford University; Brian J. Reiser, Professor, Learning Sciences, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University; Carl E. Wieman, Professor, Department of Physics, University of British Columbia; and Lauress (Laurie) L. Wise, Principal Scientist, Education Policy Impact Center, HumRRO, Monterey, CA. The review of the NGSS was overseen by Patricia Morison, Associate Executive Director for Reports and Communications for DBASSE, and Suzanne Wilson, member of the NRC Board on Science Education and Professor, Michigan State University. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the NGSS was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures. v

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GLOSSARY A Algebra (CCSS Connection) GDRO Growth, Development, and Reproduction of Organisms (Topic Name) AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science AYP annual yearly progress HI Human Impacts (Topic Name) HS high school BF Building Functions (CCSS Connection) IC Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions (CCSS Connection) CC Counting and Cardinality (CCSS Connection) ID Interpret Data (CCSS Connection) CC crosscutting concept IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act CCR college and career ready IEP individualized education program CCSS Common Core State Standards IF Interpreting Functions (CCSS Connection) CCSSM Common Core State Standards for Mathematics IRE Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems (Topic Name) CED Creating Equations (CCSS Connection) IVT Inheritance and Variation of Traits (Topic Name) CR Chemical Reactions (Topic Name) K kindergarten DCI disciplinary core idea LEP limited English proficiency E Energy (Topic Name) LS life sciences ED Engineering Design (Topic Name) EE Expressions and Equations (CCSS Connection) MD Measurement and Data (CCSS Connection) ELA English Language Arts MEOE Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems (Topic Name) ELL English language learner MP Mathematical Practice (Topic Name) ES Earth’s Systems (Topic Name) MS middle school ESEA Elementary and Secondary Education Act ESS earth and space sciences N Number and Quantity (CCSS Connection) ETS engineering, technology, and applications of science NAE National Academy of Engineering NAEP National Assessment of Educational Progress F Functions (CCSS Connection) NAGC National Association for Gifted Children FB foundation box NBT Number and Operations in Base Ten (CCSS Connection) FI Forces and Interactions (Topic Name) NCES National Center for Educational Statistics NCLB No Child Left Behind Act G Geometry (CCSS Connection) NF Number and Operations—Fractions (CCSS Connection) GBE grade-band endpoint vi GLOSSARY

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NGSS Next Generation Science Standards TELA Technology and Engineering Literacy Assessment NOS Nature of Science TIMSS Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study NRC National Research Council NS The Number System (CCSS Connection) W Waves (Topic Name) NSA Natural Selection and Adaptations (Topic Name) W Writing (CCSS Connection) NSE Natural Selection and Evolution (Topic Name) WC Weather and Climate (Topic Name) NSF National Science Foundation WER Waves and Electromagnetic Radiation (Topic Name) NSTA National Science Teachers Association WHST Writing in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (CCSS Connection) OA Operations and Algebraic Thinking (CCSS Connection) PE performance expectation PISA Program for International Student Assessment PS physical sciences Q Quantities (CCSS Connection) R&D research and development RI Reading Informational Text (CCSS Connection) RL Reading Literature (CCSS Connection) RP Ratios and Proportional Relationships (CCSS Connection) RST Reading in Science and Technical Subjects (CCSS Connection) SEP science and engineering practice SF Structure and Function (Topic Name) SFIP Structure, Function, and Information Processing (Topic Name) SL Speaking and Listening (CCSS Connection) SP Statistics and Probability (CCSS Connection) SPM Structures and Properties of Matter (Topic Name) SS Space Systems (Topic Name) SSE Seeing Structure in Expressions (CCSS Connection) STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STS science, technology, and society GLOSSARY vii

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NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS For States, By States Volume 2: Appendixes

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