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APPENDIX C a lifetime than an individual with only a high school diploma. More troubling is a grim reality underlying these statistics: a child COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS born into a family in the lowest quartile of income has a less than 8% chance of earning a postsecondary degree. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) observes that children of less-educated parents in the United States have a tougher time climbing the educational ladder than in almost INTRODUCTION any other developed country (OECD, 2012a, p. 102). The American Postsecondary education is now seen as critical to ensure the dream that one’s birth circumstances do not control one’s destiny nation’s long-term economic security, to respond to the transfor- is fast slipping away. mation in both the nature and number of current and projected The last decade has seen an emerging consensus that effective jobs, and to enable social mobility. Yet, alarmingly, the United preparation for student success in postsecondary education and States has fallen from ranking 1st among industrialized nations in careers includes a strong background in science. In particular, the both high school completion rates and the percentage of adults best science education seems to be one based on integrating rig- with a 2- or 4-year degree, to 22nd in high school graduation orous content with the practices that scientists and engineers rou- and 14th in the percentage of 25- to 34-year-olds with a 2- or tinely use in their work—including application of mathematics. 4-year degree (OECD, 2012a, p. 26). On the 30th anniversary of The larger context, and perhaps the primary impetus for this the Nation at Risk report, key indicators point to our nation being consensus, is the paradigm shift in our worldview of educa- more at risk than ever (Kirwan, 2013): tional priorities, a direct result of the advent of the information • 60% of U.S. jobs are predicted to require some form of post- age and global economy. To remain economically competitive, secondary education by the end of the decade (Georgetown countries are pressed to substantially increase the number of University Center on Education and the Workforce, 2013). students who can put knowledge to use in the service of new • The U.S. Department of Labor notes that companies have frontiers—discovering new knowledge, solving challenging prob- reported more than three million job openings every month lems, and generating innovations (NSF, 2012). Beyond the needs since February 2011 because of an absence of applicants with of the economy, an education grounded in acquiring and apply- the skills to fill these positions (Woellert, 2012). The National ing knowledge positions students to improve their options in a Science Foundation also reports that there are currently rapidly changing menu of jobs, where few students will stay in between two and three million unfilled positions in the STEM the same job throughout their working lives. In sum, today’s new areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. reality demands that science and engineering become accessible • The shortfall in STEM employees is likely to increase. The to the many, not the few. And because the needed proficiencies Department of Commerce shows that in the past 10 years, are acquired over time, students must experience how science and STEM jobs grew at three times the rate of non-STEM jobs, a engineering are conducted in the workplace throughout their trend likely to continue and accelerate (Langdon et al., 2011). K–12 schooling (NRC, 2007). Postsecondary education also increases an individual student’s Scientists and engineers have always integrated content and prac- chances for a decent, well-paying job. The unemployment rate tices in their work, but that has not been the case with science for recent high school graduates without a college degree was instruction. As former president of the National Academy of more than 30%, while for recent college graduates, it was under Sciences, Bruce Alberts, stated, “rather than learning how to think 6% (Shierholtz et al., 2012). And in terms of earnings, a holder of scientifically, students are generally being told about science and a bachelor’s degree is likely to realize a million dollars more over asked to remember facts” (Alberts, 2009). Traditional instruction 11

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has emphasized lectures, note-taking, reading, and assessment band (K–2, 3–5, 6–8, 9–12) and anchored to real-world science that tested recall, offering little opportunity for in-depth study or and engineering practices. This appendix reviews the evidence research (NRC, 2007). Laboratory activities, when offered, gener- for basing K–12 standards on rigorous content, science and engi- ally consisted of cookbook or confirmatory experiences. Research neering practices, mathematics, and the benefits of integrating indicates that most lab experiences do not integrate well with content with practices. other classroom instruction and infrequently include teacher and student analysis and discussion, thereby making it difficult for IMPORTANCE OF RIGOROUS CONTENT FOR COLLEGE students to connect learning about science content with learning the processes of science (NRC, 2005). This situation stands in stark AND CAREER READINESS IN SCIENCE contrast to the real work of science and engineering, where new The first challenge facing the developers of the Framework was knowledge and innovation are prized. The shift in what the to identify the core conceptual knowledge that all students need world needs and values requires that K–12 science education to know and that also provides a foundation for those who will undergo a huge transition, from a focus on knowledge itself to a become the scientists, engineers, technologists, and technicians focus on putting that knowledge to use—a transition that in and of the future (NRC, 2012a). Not all content is equally worth learn- of itself necessitates a corresponding leap in rigor. Meeting this ing. Some science concepts deserve the lion’s share of instruction challenge head-on, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) because they have explanatory or predictive power or provide a constructed each performance expectation by linking concepts framework that facilitates learning and applying new knowledge. and practices that build coherently over time throughout K–12, To that end, the NRC convened members of the scientific commu- thereby helping to ensure that students who meet the NGSS will nity and engaged them in a rigorous, 2-year iterative process of be prepared to succeed in science courses in both 2- and 4-year formulating and refining the document based on multiple, criti- institutions. cal reviews involving key organizations, distinguished scientists, The first step in developing the NGSS was the development of mathematicians, engineers, and science educators, as well as the A Framework for K–12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting public. The resulting Framework sets forth not only the core ideas Concepts, and Core Ideas (Framework). The National Research in the major science disciplines (life, physical, and earth and space Council (NRC) led the undertaking in partnership with the sciences), but also the crosscutting concepts that have applicabil- American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), ity to most fields in science and engineering. In keeping with the the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), and Achieve, idea that learning is a developmental progression, the natural and Inc. The intent of the Framework was to describe a coherent cognitive scientists who developed the Framework further articu- vision of science education by (1) viewing learning as a devel- lated what students should know by the end of each grade band. opmental progression; (2) focusing on a limited number of core Significantly, the Framework also embraces the core concepts and ideas to allow for in-depth learning (both cross-disciplinary con- essential practices of engineering, and in doing so, opens a win- cepts with applicability across science and engineering and con- dow of interest and career opportunities not previously available cepts central to each of the disciplines); and (3) emphasizing that to most K–12 students. learning about science and engineering involves integration of Once the Framework was completed, the NGSS writing team used content knowledge and the practices needed to engage in scien- the content to construct the NGSS performance expectations. tific inquiry and engineering design (NRC, 2012a, pp. 10–11). The Throughout the 2-year development process, the disciplinary NGSS kept the vision of the Framework intact by focusing on a core ideas (DCIs), and the related learning progressions from the rigorous set of core concepts that are articulated for each grade Framework, along with their incorporation into the student 12 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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performance expectations, were reviewed multiple times by a students are in the process of taking the core science course of large group of expert reviewers (including major science, engi- study (three years or more of science in high school) that will pre- neering, and mathematics associations), by the state teams in each pare them for college-level work, and have completed a course in of the 26 lead states as well as some additional states, and by Biology and a course in Physical Science and/or Earth Science by the general public. In addition, Achieve convened postsecondary the time they take the ACT” (ACT, 2011, p. 20). Based on their avail- faculty and business representatives on two separate occasions able data, ACT builds the case that students are better prepared for to evaluate the content of the standards as being both necessary postsecondary work when the practices are used over 3 years of and sufficient for college and career readiness for all students. science in high school. ACT concludes [sic]: “Postsecondary expec- The comprehensive nature and thoroughness of the review pro- tations clearly state the process and inquiry skill in science are cess should ensure that the NGSS express the content expectations critical as well as rigorous understanding of fundamental (not that will allow all students to be successful in advanced science advanced) science topics” (ACT, 2011, p. 9). However, while both courses and postsecondary careers. ACT and College Board argue for winnowing content, ACT goes Both the Framework and the NGSS reflect current thinking about further, making the case that studying advanced content is not a the need for greater depth and rigor in K–12 science school- quality predictor of postsecondary success. ACT goes on to state, ing. College Board, for example, has had a rich history in defin- “Therefore, for example, including a great deal of advanced science ing college and career readiness. “In order for a student to be topics among the Next Generation standards would conflict with college-ready in science, he or she must . . . have knowledge of the available empirical evidence” (ACT, 2011, p. 9). Postsecondary overarching ideas in the science disciplines (i.e., earth and space faculty report that a firm grasp of core concepts is more impor- science, life science, physical science, and engineering) and how tant than a weak grasp of advanced topics. Thus, a few compo- the practices of science are situated within this content” (College nents originally included in the Framework and early drafts of Board, 2010, p. 3). The content represented in the Framework the NGSS were eliminated over time, based on the reviews of is also in line with the content identified in the College Board faculty in 2- and 4-year institutions in NGSS lead states, as well Standards for College Success (2009), which defines the rigor- as on the ACT research. ous knowledge and skills students need to develop and master ACT is not alone in arguing for a more limited coverage of con- in order to be ready for college and 21st-century careers. These tent. Recent research examining the relationship between the per- were developed to . . . help students successfully transition into formance of college students in introductory science courses and Advanced Placement (AP) and college-level courses. College Board the amount of content covered in their high school courses con- standards, like the Framework, are based on (1) overarching unify- cluded that “students who reported covering at least one major ing concepts that are important across the science disciplines but topic in depth, for a month or longer, in high school were found also often apply to other fields such as mathematics and technol- to earn higher grades in college science than did students who ogy, and (2) like the Framework, are based on the core ideas of reported no coverage in depth. Students reporting breadth in each science discipline (College Board, 2009). For students pursu- their high school course, covering all major topics, did not appear ing postsecondary coursework in science, core content clearly to have any advantage in Chemistry or Physics and a significant plays a key role. By virtue of being based on the content from the disadvantage in Biology” (Schwartz et al., 2009, p. 1). Additional Framework, the NGSS provide a strong foundation for students to research supports limiting coverage, but offers little in the way of be successful in advanced science coursework. advising standards or policy developers what content should be ACT takes a similar, though not identical, stance as College Board eliminated. In fact, little empirical evidence exists on the content with respect to core content. The ACT assessment assumes “that alignment between high school science and postsecondary College and Career Readiness 13

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expectations beyond ACT’s data. Given the lack of empirical evi- Finally, as seen in the next section, students will need to be dence in the field, the most fruitful path to support college and able to apply and communicate that knowledge flexibly across career readiness in science is to involve postsecondary faculty various disciplines, proficiencies they can acquire through the working with high school faculty to align content expectations. continual exploration of DCIs, science and engineering practices, From an international perspective, science content plays a promi- and crosscutting concepts. nent role in preparing K–12 students. In its international science benchmarking study of 10 countries (Canada [Ontario], Chinese IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Taipei, England, Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, PRACTICES IN COLLEGE AND Singapore, and South Korea) Achieve found evidence of strong CAREER READINESS IN SCIENCE science content, including far more attention to physical science concepts in primary and lower secondary grades than is typical of Empirical data and related research show direct support for stu- most states in the United States (Achieve, 2010, p. 59). However, dents engaging in, and being held accountable for, proficiency the presentation of content is different than in the United States. in the science and engineering practices. The NRC has published Standards in 7 of the 10 countries present integrated science con- a great deal of research in the recent past that supports the tent (content drawn from the major disciplines) each year from need for students to engage in science and engineering prac- primary through grade 10, allowing students to specialize later in tices as they learn content. While no one document prior to the high school (Achieve, 2010, p. 42). These countries clearly see that Framework includes all eight of the science and engineering prac- a minimum amount of science knowledge is necessary for all stu- tices described in the Framework, they are clear in the literature dents to become scientifically literate. Requiring that all students as a whole. Documents supporting the practices in the Framework study integrated science content through grade 10 before enroll- include Taking Science to School; Ready, Set, SCIENCE!; and ing in discipline-specific courses is a significant departure from the America’s Lab Report. Findings from Taking Science to School (NRC, current structures in most U.S. states. Importantly, an integrated 2007, p. 342) show that students learn science more effectively program through grade 10 also speaks to the possibility of capital- when they actively engage in the practices of science. Linn and Hsi izing on student interest. Students could choose to pursue a course (2000) (as cited in the NRC’s America’s Lab Report [2005]) found of study later in high school that fully prepares them for post- that a quality integrated experience with practice and content led secondary careers, such as entry-level positions in health-related not only to greater mastery, but importantly, also more interest in fields. Singapore has pursued this approach to great advantage. science. In making recommendations to the Carnegie’s Commission on Streamlining the overwhelming amount of science content to target Mathematics and Science Education, mathematics expert Phillip essential key ideas was the first but not the only challenge in build- Daro observed that Singapore’s educational system “illustrates ing the Framework. In identifying and characterizing science and how it is possible to design multiple pathways to college entrance engineering practices, developers had to confront common class- while still serving more specialized interests in the student popula- room instructional practices where students are told that there is “a tion” (Carnegie Corporation of New York, 2009, p. 25). scientific method,” typically presented as a fixed linear sequence of Students need to be able to make sense of the world and steps that students apply in a superficial or scripted way. approach problems not previously encountered—new situations, This approach often obscures or distorts the processes of new phenomena, and new information. To achieve this level inquiry as they are practiced by scientists. Practices, such of proficiency students need a solid grasp of key science con- as reasoning carefully about the implications of models cepts and the ability to relate that knowledge across disciplines. and theories; framing questions and hypotheses so that 14 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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they can be productively investigated; systematically ana- be college-ready in science, he or she must: (1) have knowledge lyzing and integrating data to serve as evidence to evalu- of the overarching ideas in the science disciplines (i.e., earth and ate claims; and communicating and critiquing ideas in a space science, life science, physical science, and engineering) and scientific community are vital parts of inquiry. However, how the practices of science are situated within this content; they tend to be missed when students are taught a (2) have a rich understanding of the nature and epistemology scripted procedure designed to obtain a particular result of science, scientific discourse, and the integration of science, in a decontextualized investigation. Furthermore, these technology, and society; (3) have metacognitive skills and self- higher-level reasoning and problem-solving practices efficacy related to the practices of science” (College Board, 2010, require a reasonable depth of familiarity with the con- p. 3). This definition and the underlying research leave no doubt tent of a given scientific topic if students are to engage as to science practices being a critical component of readiness. in them in a meaningful way. Debates over content ver- ACT’s evidence for incorporating science practices derives from sus process are not in step with the current views of the extensive years of collecting and analyzing data with regard nature of science. . . . Science is seen as a fundamentally to judging the preparedness of high school graduates for post- social enterprise that is aimed at advancing knowledge secondary science courses. ACT conducts a national curriculum through the development of theories and models that survey every 3 years that compares expectations of introductory have explanatory and predictive power and that are level postsecondary instructors with what is actually taught by grounded in evidence. In practice this means that content middle and high school teachers and uses the results to update and process are deeply intertwined. (NRC, 2012b, p. 127) teacher information and the ACT assessments. The past two sur- Historically, College Board emphasized content in its advanced veys have shown that postsecondary instructors greatly value the placement science examinations, but is now giving increased use of process or inquiry skills (science and engineering practices attention to the practices that scientists routinely use. To wit: in the language of NGSS), and, in fact, value these skills equally “Central to science is the goal of establishing lines of evidence to content. ACT notes [sic]: “Postsecondary expectations clearly and using that evidence to develop and refine testable explana- state the process and inquiry skill in science are critical as well as tions and make predictions about natural phenomena. Standards rigorous understanding of fundamental (not advanced) science documents must reflect this goal of science by focusing on topics” (ACT, 2011, p. 9). In their college placement services ACT developing, in all students, the competencies necessary for also uses empirical data derived from the performance of college constructing testable, evidence-based explanations and predic- students to set the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks. Students tions” (College Board, 2010, p. 4). The new Advanced Placement who meet a benchmark on the ACT test or ACT Compass have (AP) Biology Exam and the relatively new Standards for College approximately a 50% chance of receiving a B or better in their Success (SCS) reflect the new perspective in that both utilize sci- introductory level Biology course (ACT, 2013). entific practices extensively. Both the AP redesign and the SCS While ACT’s position on college and career readiness in science identify performance expectations requiring practice and con- acknowledges the need for students to pursue a rigorous program tent to be in context of one another. Given the research that led of science courses in high school, ACT also calls for integrating College Board to make these decisions, the NRC utilized these practices, based on their survey results. Notably, the ACT assess- two projects as a basis for the development of the Framework. ment focuses more on skill application than content. ACT (2011) College Board work and now the NGSS focus on understanding states, “The Science Test, on the EXPLORE, PLAN, and ACT tests, rather than memorization because greater understanding has measures the student’s interpretation, analysis, evaluation, rea- been found to positively influence college performance (Tai et soning, and problem-solving skills required in the natural sci- al., 2005, 2006). College Board states: “In order for a student to College and Career Readiness 15

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ences. The test assumes that students are in the process of tak- the life science documents and is used as an exemplar in Redish ing the core science course of study (three years or more of sci- and Smith’s (2008) work on skill development in engineering, ence in high school) that will prepare them for college-level noted above. Modeling is also built into both the Common Core work, and have completed a course in Biology and a course in State Standards (CCSS) for Mathematics and the Framework. Physical Science and/or Earth Science by the time they take the As noted earlier, making science accessible to a far greater num- ACT” (p. 20). The ACT’s WorkKeys Applied Technology Assessment ber of students than is now the case is a critical issue. A growing also values these skills and empirically affirms that knowledge body of evidence suggests that student engagement in practices and usage of these skills better prepares students for career helps reduce achievement gaps (Barton et al., 2008; Brotman and options than content knowledge alone. Moore, 2008; Enfield et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2005; Page, 2007). College Board’s and ACT’s position with regard to the critical role Specifically, one study found no significant difference in perfor- of practices in preparing students for success in college-level mance between subgroups (gender, ethnicity, or economically science is echoed by David Conley in his book College Knowledge disadvantaged) when inquiry was used in instruction, as opposed (2005). He identified students’ ability to conduct meaningful to traditional classroom instruction where a significant achieve- research and use practices that lead toward quality research ment gap between subgroups of students was found (Wilson as a college- and career-ready indicator, stating that successful et al., 2010). In addition, Lee and colleagues (2006) found that students: while student achievement increased overall with inquiry-focused • Formulate research questions and develop a plan for research. instruction, students from non-mainstreamed or less privileged • Use research to support and develop their own opinions. backgrounds showed much higher gains than their main- • Identify claims in their work that require outside support or streamed, more privileged counterparts (Lee et al., 2006). validation. From an international perspective, science and engineering prac- Science and engineering practices are also receiving increased tices are seen as necessary for literacy as well as proficiency. The attention in higher education. For example, recent “studies are OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment 2015 converging on a view of engineering education that not only Scientific Literacy Assessment Framework (2012) states that a requires students to develop a grasp of traditional engineering scientifically literate person is able to engage in discourse by fundamentals, such as mechanics, dynamics, mathematics, and explaining phenomena scientifically, evaluate and design scien- technology, but also to develop the skills associated with learning tific enquiry, and interpret data and evidence scientifically. It is to imbed this knowledge in real-world situations. This not only worth noting that in Japan, a nation whose students outscore demands skills of creativity, teamwork, and design, but in global U.S. students on both PISA and TIMSS, classroom activity patterns collaboration, communication, management, economics, and eth- are quite different than those characteristic of U.S. classrooms. ics. Furthermore, the rapid pace of change of technology seems Japanese students contribute their ideas in solving problems col- fated to continue for many decades to come. This will require the lectively and critically discuss alternative solutions to problems. engineers we are training today to learn to be lifelong learners Students in classroom environments like these come to expect and to learn to develop adaptive expertise” (Hatano and Inagaki, that these public, social acts of reasoning and dialogue are a 1986; Pellegrino, 2006; Redish and Smith, 2008, p. 2). regular part of classroom life and learning across the disciplines The AP science curricula, the AAAS publication Vision and (Linn, 2000; Stigler and Hiebert, 1999). Change, and the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians At the other end of the educational spectrum, Coles conducted identify overlapping science practices that are in line with the research on the science content knowledge and skills necessary for Framework. For example, the importance of modeling emerges in both higher education and the workforce in the United Kingdom 16 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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by interviewing groups from each sector. He found that employers IMPORTANCE OF MATHEMATICS FOR COLLEGE AND and higher education professionals have more in common than CAREER READINESS IN SCIENCE not in their views of what science skills makes one qualified for their specific sector, noting: “[t]he number of components com- The Framework calls out mathematical thinking as a specific mon to employers and higher education tutors is about twice the practice for good reason. “Mathematics is the bedrock of science, number of components specific to employers and about twice engineering and technology—it is the ability to quantitatively the number of components specific to tutors in higher educa- describe and measure objects, events, and processes that makes tion.” Young and Glanfield (1998) add support to this finding, science so powerful in extending human knowledge. Moreover, stating, “under the impact of information technology, the skills because of the rapid and almost unimaginable increase in the needed in different occupational sectors are converging as more power of computers, advances in science now depend routinely and more jobs demand generic and abstract rather than sector- on techniques of mathematical models, remote imaging, data specific skills” (p. 7). mining, and probabilistic calculations that were unthinkable a Graduates of 2- and 4-year colleges have as their goal securing decade ago” (Achieve, 2010, p. 53). employment and being successful on the job. Listening to what Complementing the research supporting the integration of prac- employers seek in candidates is critical because the skills employ- tices and disciplinary content in science education, research on ers seek need to be learned over the course of a K–postsecondary math education suggests that instruction should not only empha- education. A number of recent reports point to gaps in prepara- size core ideas, but also emphasize inquiry, relevance, and a tion for work. One study earmarked five assets that are important multilayered vision of proficiency (Carnegie Corporation of New to employers but hardest to find in candidates: These, in rank York, 2009). order, are Communication Skills, Positive Attitude, Adaptable to From the international perspective, the lack of inclusion of math- Change, Teamwork Skills, and Strategic Thinking and Analytics ematics explicitly in science standards was found to be a short- (Millennial Branding and Experience Inc., 2012). Another study coming in the countries studied (Achieve, 2010). In a review of asked employers to rate the importance of candidate skills/ the top performing countries based on PISA, reviewers found qualities. The results resonate with the previous study as employ- that mathematics integration was left to mathematics standards ers cited, in rank order, the following top five abilities: work in and curriculum documents. It is important to be aware that the a team structure, verbally communicate with persons inside and math-science connection is not obvious to students. How science outside the organization, make decisions and solve problems, standards address and incorporate mathematics can make a differ- obtain and process information, plan, and organize and priori- ence in how easily students develop quantitative habits of mind. tize work (National Association of Colleges and Employers, 2012). As a result, in developing the NGSS, explicit steps were taken to Still another study found that 95% of all employers surveyed include mathematics in the development of the standards to help say they give hiring preference to graduates with skills that will ensure students would receive a coherent education in two mutu- enable them to contribute to innovation in the workplace, reflect- ally supportive content areas. In fact the NGSS identify related ing concern for the nation’s continuing ability to compete (The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics for each science Association of American Colleges and Universities, 2013). These standard. skills are likely to be acquired when students engage in projects based on the science and engineering practices and core content In addition to the inclusion of mathematics in the practices, there described in the Framework and prescribed in the performance is evidence that mathematics is a key predictor of success in col- expectations of the NGSS. lege science. While there is limited empirical data about the exact boundaries of college and career readiness in science, there College and Career Readiness 17

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has been data that supports a direct correlation between math- It is easy to see why mathematics is, and will continue to be, ematics and success in college course work, or even the likelihood a quality indicator of success. If there are any prerequisites to of successfully graduating with a 4-year degree. Proficiency in postsecondary science courses, it is usually a mathematics require- mathematics is a critical component of high school preparation ment. Students who are prepared for postsecondary education leading to college success: “the highest level of mathematics will be able to exhibit evidence of the effective transfer of reached in high school continues to be a key marker in precolle- mathematics and disciplinary literacy skills to science. As the giate momentum, with the tipping point of momentum toward a NGSS move into adoption and implementation, work to develop bachelor’s degree now firmly above Algebra 2” (Adelman, 2006, specific examples of the further integration of mathematics and p. xix). science will be critical. Sadler and Tai (2007) found that the number of years of math- ematics was a significant predictor of college success across all INTEGRATION OF PRACTICE AND CORE IDEAS college science subjects. Further, they found that more advanced mathematics in high school was a “pillar” that supports success Neither rigorous content nor science and engineering practices in college science coursework. In like vein, Conley found college- alone are sufficient for success in postsecondary institutions and and career-ready graduates had a firm grasp on mathematics careers. Rather it is the linking of the practices to core content and the ability to apply it across other disciplines. In addition, that increases student learning, as the Framework underscores: he found in surveys with college faculty that mathematics was “Learning is defined as the combination of both knowledge and considered an even better predictor of college science than high practice, not separate content and process learning goals” (p. 254). school science courses. Beyond success in postsecondary science, Additional research backs up the NRC’s assertion. While practices “there is a strong correlation between preparedness for college are found in literature to be important predictors of achievement mathematics and the actual completion of a college degree. in science (Conley, 2005; Redish and Smith, 2008; von Secker, 2002; Students who need remediation in mathematics are considered Wilson et al., 2010), it is also clear that students should use them in at risk for academic failure and for retention and perseverance the context of quality and rigorous content. in their post-secondary education” (Ali and Jenkins, 2002, p. 11). One often overlooked aspect of combining demanding practices The combination of the CCSS and the NGSS provide all students with strong content in standards is the effect on rigor. Even the the opportunity for advanced studies in mathematics and science. most demanding of content is diluted if the expected student per- The NGSS were developed specifically taking into account the formance is basically dependent on rote memorization, i.e., calls new mathematics expectations described in the CCSS. for students to “describe,” “identify,” “recall,” “define,” “state,” Experts at home and abroad understand that mathematics is or “recognize.” It is also well to keep in mind that calling for key to understanding and communicating scientific ideas. In application of mathematics in a performance generally raises the the words of mathematician and educator Sol Garfunkel on the level of rigor. future of American students, “We know that their future will An instructive illustration is a learning outcome from Kansas’s pre- involve many different jobs and the need to master current and vious Science Education Standards (Kansas adopted the NGSS as its future technologies. We know that they will need creativity, inde- new state science education standards in June 2013) as compared pendence, imagination, and problem-solving abilities in addition with a related NGSS performance expectation. to skills proficiency. In other words, students will increasingly need mathematical understanding and awareness of the tools mathematics provides in order to achieve their career goals” (Garfunkel, 2009). 18 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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Kansas 2007 Science Education NGSS Physical Sciences Grades 9–12, science practices are used in conjunction with content. On the Standards, Grades 8–11, Chemistry, HS-PS1-1 eighth-grade teacher questionnaire, teachers reported how HS.2A.2.2 often their students engaged in hands-on activities or investiga- ”The student understands the periodic ”Use the periodic table as a model to tions in science by selecting one of four responses: “never or table lists elements according to predict the relative properties of elements hardly ever,” “once or twice a month,” “once or twice a week,” increasing atomic number. This table based on the patterns of electrons in the or “every day or almost every day.” Students who did hands-on organizes physical and chemical trends outermost energy level of atoms.” projects every day or almost every day scored higher on average by groups, periods, and sub-categories.” than those who did hands-on projects less frequently (NCES, 2011, p. 10). Furthermore, among higher-achieving grade 8 students While the organization of the periodic table is addressed by both who scored above the 75th percentile, 77% had teachers who sets of standards, it is clear that the NGSS raise the level of rigor reported that their students engage in hands-on activities once a by calling for a more demanding performance than does this week or more (NCES, 2011, p. 11). example from the 2007 Kansas standards. The research regarding the value of integrating practices with Another illustration can be found in Kansas’s previous Biology content is compelling: preparedness for postsecondary work standards: should be rooted in a student’s ability to use science and engi- neering practices in the context of rigorous content. Using the practices in absence of content is akin to asking students to learn Kansas 2007 Science Education NGSS Life Sciences Grades 9–12, the steps in the so-called scientific method. That will not result Standards, Grades 8–11, Biology, HS-LS3-3 HS.3.3.4 in preparedness but rather is likely to result in students continu- ing to have a disjointed view of science and a lack of ability to ”The student understands organisms ”Apply concepts of statistics and vary widely within and between probability to explain the variation and pursue their own interests or research today’s problems. Students populations. Variation allows for distribution of expressed traits in a proficient in applying the practices in context will be able to natural selection to occur.” population.” apply a blend of science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and DCIs to make sense of the world and approach problems not previously encountered, engage in self-directed Calling for students to apply math concepts in explaining trait planning, monitoring, and evaluation, and employ valid and reli- variation, as the NGSS do, bumps up the rigor of the expected able research strategies. student performance. Incorporating practices with content seems to have a positive effect on ensuring all students learn content Prior to the release of the NGSS, most U.S. states had standards at a deep level. Researchers found that students in project-based that did not clearly integrate inquiry and content. This integra- science classrooms performed better than comparison students on tion of science process skills and domain-specific knowledge is still designing fair tests, justifying claims with evidence, and generat- often missing from the classroom. Many standards, curriculum ing explanations. They also exhibited more negotiation and col- documents, and textbooks have separate sections on inquiry and laboration in their group work and a greater tendency to monitor science practices, and research indicates that many teachers follow and evaluate their work (Kolodner et al., 2003). In addition, the lead of these resources by teaching practices separately from von Secker (2002) found a greater content mastery and reten- conceptual content (NRC, 2007). Often, when students engage tion when teachers use inquiry-oriented practices. Results from in science and engineering practices through laboratory experi- the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in ments, these experiences have been isolated from the flow of science corroborate the positive effect on learning content when classroom instruction and lacking in clear learning goals tied to content knowledge (NRC, 2005). Standards that balance and College and Career Readiness 19

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integrate inquiry and content can enhance student learning and in primary, upper elementary, and in middle and high school better prepare them for success in postsecondary institutions and classrooms. careers. As research has repeatedly shown that standards can To reiterate, during the development of the NGSS, states have a large influence on curriculum, instruction, and assessment remained focused on the vision of the Framework from the NRC, (Berland and McNeill, 2010; Krajcik et al., 2008; NRC, 2007), it staying true to the cornerstones of rigorous core content, science is important for standards to specify the learning outcomes we and engineering practices, and links to mathematics. To ensure expect from students, including that they can use practices to fidelity to that vision, teams of postsecondary faculty and busi- demonstrate knowledge of core ideas. ness professionals from across the 26 lead states were convened to review the standards in terms of practice and content. Like CONCLUSION the NRC, these groups confirmed that the design and develop- ment of the NGSS were guided by the best available evidence to Economic and education statistics make it clear that the United ensure that students who meet the standards have the knowl- States is not educating enough students who can succeed in a edge and skills to succeed in entry level science courses in techni- global information economy fueled by advances and innovation cal training programs and in 2- and 4-year colleges. The evidence in science, engineering, and technology. Research findings indi- indicates this can best be accomplished through an approach cate that our current system of science education, which places that promotes in-depth understanding of a focused set of core more value on science as a knowledge base than as a way of concepts and interdisciplinary ideas, integrated with the regular thinking, is ineffective. Too few students are experiencing suc- application of those understandings through the practices of cess in postsecondary institutions and therefore lack the where- scientific inquiry.  withal to qualify for gainful employment, including STEM fields, Benchmarking has become a central concept in improving sys- where the nation is seeing the most growth in jobs. They are, in tems. And many countries are looking to Singapore as a model. effect, being closed out of middle class opportunities. However, Singapore’s Educational System is recognized today as “world as the research studies referenced in this appendix indicate there class,” but that is a relatively recent turn of events. In just a is a more productive path to follow in science education that slightly longer time period than it took the United States to entails linking important core content to the practices that relinquish its leadership role in terms of percent of students scientists and engineers use as they go about their work. This earning high school diplomas and postsecondary degrees, shift in emphasis requires that we control the amount and kind Singapore went from an impoverished nation with a largely of content, giving priority to powerful concepts that have cur- illiterate population to being a model in education, a major rency because of their utility in explaining phenomena, predict- telecommunications hub, and a leader in consumer electronics, ing outcomes or displaying broad applicability in many fields, pharmaceuticals, financial services, and information technol- and that we use the practices in conjunction with core content ogy. Singapore’s metamorphosis is attributed to its exemplary throughout the grades. program of ensuring that most students are educated to take The Framework identifies the content students are expected advantage of growing opportunities for employment in STEM to know in order to be scientifically literate and to have an fields. Because of the differences in size, scope, and complexity, adequate foundation for further study and that content was it is difficult to imagine the United States fully implementing deemed appropriate for success in college and career by science Singapore’s system. However, much of education in the United education experts and postsecondary instructors and employ- States is controlled by states, and they could individually use ers. The Framework also describes the practices that characterize Singapore’s model to good advantage. science and engineering work and explains what they look like 20 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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It is worth noting that as part of the education policy shift, “the Alberts, B. (2009). Redefining science education. Science 23. Available government developed in 2004 the ‘Teach Less, Learn More at: http://www.sci-ips.com/pdf/reflections/Reflections_29.pdfhttp:// Initiative,’ which moved instruction further away from rote www.sciencemag.org/content/323/5913/437.full. memorization and repetitive tasks on which it had originally American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2011). Vision focused to deeper conceptual understanding and problem-based and change in undergraduate biology education. Washington, DC. learning” (CIEB, 2012). Instruction has shifted toward one that American Association of Universities. (2011). AAU undergraduate includes active engagement with science practices (CIEB, 2012). STEM initiative. Available at: http://www.aau.edu/policy/article. This stance certainly resonates with that taken by the Framework aspx?id=12588. and the NGSS. American Society of Plant Biologists. (2012). Core concepts and learn- ing objectives in undergraduate plant biology. Available at: http:// In closing, when it comes to developing standards, rigorous con- my.aspb.org/blogpost/722549/152613/Core-Concepts-and-Learning- tent is an important indicator of student readiness for success Objectives-in-Undergraduate-Plant-Biology?hhSearchTerms=core+and in postsecondary education and careers, but it is not enough. +concepts&terms=. Proficiency with science and engineering practices is also an indi- Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2013). It takes cator of readiness, but it is not sufficient in the absence of rigor- more than a major: Employer priorities for college learning and ous content. In the end, as the research shows, it is the science student success. Washington, DC: Hart Research Associates. and engineering practices learned in conjunction with rigorous Association of American Medical Colleges and Howard Hughes content that best prepares students for success in postsecond- Medical Institute. (2009). Scientific Foundations for Future ary education and careers. More research is needed around Physicians. Washington, DC. the alignment of high school and postsecondary expectations, Association of Public and Land Grant Universities. (2013). Science and course pathways, and flexible options that engage students’ Mathematics Teacher Imperative. Available at: http://www.aplu. interests and best prepare students for postsecondary and career org/page.aspx?pid=584. opportunities. Barton, A. C., Tan, E., and Rivet, A. (2008). Creating hybrid spaces for engaging school science among urban middle school girls. REFERENCES American Educational Research Journal 45(1):68–103. ABET. (2009). ABET criteria for evaluating engineering programs. Berland, L. K., and McNeill, K. L. (2010). A learning progression Baltimore, MD. for scientific argumentation: Understanding student work and Achieve. (2010). International science benchmarking report: Taking designing supportive instructional contexts. Science Education the lead in science education: Forging next-generation science 94(1):765–793. standards. Washington, DC. Brotman, J. S., and Moore, F. M. (2008). Girls and science: A review ACT. (2011). Science for college and careers: A resource for developers of four themes in the science education literature. Journal of of the next generation science standards. Unpublished manuscript, Research in Science Teaching 45(9):971–1,002. commissioned by Achieve. Carnegie Corporation of New York. (2009). The opportunity equation: ACT. (2013). What are ACT’s college readiness benchmarks? Available Transforming mathematics and science education for citizenship at: http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/benchmarks.pdf. and the global economy. Adams, C. (2012, December 12). K–12, higher ed. unite to Carnevale, A. P., Smith, N., and Melton, M. (2011). STEM. Washington, align learning in Minnesota. Education Week. Available at: DC: Georgetown University Center on Education and the http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/12/12/14minn.h32. Workforce. Available at: http://cew.georgetown.edu/stem. html?r=1637415706. College and Career Readiness 21

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