Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$49.95



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 375


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 374
APPENDIX E and the practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design. Thus the framework seeks to illustrate DISCIPLINARY CORE IDEA PROGRESSIONS how knowledge and practice must be intertwined in IN THE NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE designing learning experiences in K–12 science education. STANDARDS (NRC, 2012) DISCIPLINARY CORE IDEA PROGRESSION The Framework describes the progression of disciplinary core Following the vision of A Framework for K–12 Science Education ideas in the grade-band endpoints. The progressions are summa- (Framework), the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are rized in this section of the NGSS appendixes, which describe the intended to increase coherence in K–12 science education. The content that occurs at each grade band. Some of the sub-ideas following excerpt from the Framework explains the approach in within the disciplinary core ideas overlap significantly. Readers will more detail: notice there is not always a clear division between those ideas, so First, it is built on the notion of learning as a develop- several progressions are divided among more than one sub-idea. mental progression. It is designed to help children con- The purpose of these diagrams is to briefly describe the content at tinually build on and revise their knowledge and abilities, each grade band for each disciplinary core idea across K–12. This starting from their curiosity about what they see around progression is for reference only. The full progressions can be seen them and their initial conceptions about how the world in the Framework. In addition, the NGSS show the integration of works. The goal is to guide their knowledge toward a the three dimensions. This document in no way endorses separat- more scientifically based and coherent view of the natural ing the disciplinary core ideas from the other two dimensions. sciences and engineering, as well as of the ways in which they are pursued and their results can be used. REFERENCE Second, the framework focuses on a limited number of core ideas in science and engineering both within and NRC (National Research Council). (2012). A framework for K–12 science across the disciplines. The committee made this choice in education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. order to avoid the shallow coverage of a large number of Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. topics and to allow more time for teachers and students to explore each idea in greater depth. Reduction of the sheer sum of details to be mastered is intended to give time for students to engage in scientific investigations and argumentation and to achieve depth of understand- ing of the core ideas presented. Delimiting what is to be learned about each core idea within each grade band also helps clarify what is most important to spend time on, and avoid the proliferation of detail to be learned with no conceptual grounding. Third, the framework emphasizes that learning about science and engineering involves integration of the knowl- edge of scientific explanations (i.e., content knowledge) 40

OCR for page 374
Physical Sciences Progression INCREASING SOPHISTICATION OF STUDENT THINKING K–2 3–5 6–8 9–12 The sub-atomic structural model and interactions between electrical charges at the atomic scale can be Because matter exists as particles used to explain the structure and Matter exists as different The fact that matter is composed that are too small to be seen, matter interactions of matter, including substances that have observable of atoms and molecules can be PS1.A is always conserved even if it seems chemical reactions and nuclear different properties. Different used to explain the properties of Structure of matter to disappear. Measurements of a processes. Repeating patterns of properties are suited to different substances, diversity of materials, (includes PS1.C Nuclear processes) variety of observable properties the periodic table reflect patterns of purposes. Objects can be built states of matter, phase changes, and can be used to identify particular outer electrons. A stable molecule up from smaller parts. conservation of matter. materials. has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy to take the molecule apart. Chemical reactions that occur Reacting substances rearrange to Chemical processes are understood Heating and cooling of when substances are mixed can form different molecules, but the in terms of collisions of molecules, PS1.B substances cause changes that be identified by the emergence of number of atoms is conserved. Some rearrangement of atoms, and Chemical reactions are sometimes reversible and substances with different properties; reactions release energy and others changes in energy as determined by sometimes not. the total mass remains the same. absorb energy. properties of the elements involved. Newton’s Second Law of Motion The role of the mass of an object (F = ma) and the conservation PS2.A must be qualitatively accounted for The effect of unbalanced forces on of momentum can be used to Forces and motion in any change of motion due to the an object results in a change of predict changes in the motion of application of a force. motion. Patterns of motion can be macroscopic objects. Pushes and pulls can have used to predict future motion. Some Forces at a distance are explained by different strengths and forces act through contact; some fields that can transfer energy and directions, and can change the forces act even when the objects that can be described in terms of the speed or direction of an object’s Forces that act at a distance involve are not in contact. The gravitational arrangement and properties of the PS2.B motion or start or stop it. fields that can be mapped by their force of Earth acting on an object interacting objects and the distance Types of interactions near Earth’s surface pulls that object relative strength and effect on an between them. These forces can be toward the planet’s center. object. used to describe the relationship between electrical and magnetic fields. PS2.C Stability and instability in physical N/A N/A N/A N/A systems Disciplinary Core Idea Progressions in the Next Generation Science Standards 41

OCR for page 374
(Continued) K–2 3–5 6–8 9–12 Kinetic energy can be distinguished The total energy within a system is PS3.A Moving objects contain energy. The from the various forms of potential conserved. Energy transfer within N/A Definitions of energy faster an object moves, the more energy. Energy changes to and from and between systems can be energy it has. Energy can be moved each type can be tracked through described and predicted in terms from place to place by moving physical or chemical interactions. of the energy associated with the PS3.B objects or through sound, light, or The relationship between the motion or configuration of particles Conservation of energy and energy [Content found in PS3.D] electrical currents. Energy can be temperature and the total energy (objects). transfer converted from one form to another. of a system depends on the types, ------------------------------------------- states, and amounts of matter. Systems move toward stable states. When two objects interact, each PS3.C Bigger pushes and pulls cause When objects collide, contact forces A field contains energy that depends exerts a force on the other, and these Relationship between energy and bigger changes in an object’s transfer energy so as to change the on the arrangement of the objects in forces can transfer energy between forces motion or shape. objects’ motions. the field. them. Energy can be “produced,” “used,” Sunlight is captured by plants and Photosynthesis is the primary PS3.D or “released” by converting stored used in a reaction to produce sugar biological means of capturing Sunlight warms Earth’s surface. Energy in chemical processes and energy. Plants capture energy from molecules, which can be reversed by radiation from the sun. Energy everyday life sunlight, which can later be used as burning those molecules to release cannot be destroyed; it can be fuel or food. energy. converted to less useful forms. A simple wave model has a repeating pattern with a specific The wavelength and frequency of Waves are regular patterns of wavelength, frequency, and a wave are related to one another motion, which can be made in water Sound can make matter vibrate, amplitude, and mechanical waves by the speed of the wave, which PS4.A by disturbing the surface. Waves of and vibrating matter can make need a medium through which they depends on the type of wave and the Wave properties the same type can differ in amplitude sound. are transmitted. This model can medium through which it is passing. and wavelength. Waves can make explain many phenomena, including Waves can be used to transmit objects move. sound and light. Waves can transmit information and energy. energy. Both an electromagnetic wave model Objects can be seen only when The construct of a wave is used and a photon model explain features PS4.B light is available to illuminate to model how light interacts with of electromagnetic radiation broadly Electromagnetic radiation An object can be seen when light them. objects. and describe common applications of reflected from its surface enters our electromagnetic radiation. eyes. -------------------------------------- Patterns can encode, send, receive, Waves can be used to transmit PS4.C Large amounts of information can People use devices to send and and decode information. digital information. Digitized Information technologies and be stored and shipped around as a receive information. information is comprised of a pattern instrumentation result of being digitized. of ones and zeros. 42 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

OCR for page 374
Life Sciences Progression INCREASING SOPHISTICATION OF STUDENT THINKING K–2 3–5 6–8 9–12 Systems of specialized cells within organisms All organisms have Organisms have both internal and All living things are made up of cells. In help perform essential functions of life. LS1.A external parts that they external macroscopic structures organisms, cells work together to form Any one system in an organism is made up Structure and function use to perform daily that allow for growth, survival, tissues and organs that are specialized of numerous parts. Feedback mechanisms functions. behavior, and reproduction. for particular body functions. maintain an organism’s internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors. Parents and offspring Animals engage in behaviors that LS1.B Reproduction is essential to every Growth and division of cells in organisms often engage in behaviors increase the odds of reproduction. An Growth and development of kind of organism. Organisms have occur by mitosis and differentiation for that help the offspring organism’s growth is affected by both organisms unique and diverse life cycles. specific cell types. survive. genetic and environmental factors. Food provides animals with the The hydrocarbon backbones of sugars materials and energy they need for produced through photosynthesis are used Plants use the energy from light to make body repair, growth, warmth, and to make amino acids and other molecules Animals obtain food they sugars through photosynthesis. Within LS1.C motion. Plants acquire material for that can be assembled into proteins or DNA. need from plants or other individual organisms, food is broken Organization for matter and growth chiefly from air, water, and Through cellular respiration, matter and animals. Plants need down through a series of chemical energy flow in organisms process matter and obtain energy energy flow through different organizational water and light. reactions that rearrange molecules and from sunlight, which is used to levels of an organism as elements are release energy. maintain conditions necessary for recombined to form different products and survival. transfer energy. Each sense receptor responds to Animals sense and Different sense receptors are different inputs, transmitting them as communicate information specialized for particular kinds LS1.D signals that travel along nerve cells to and respond to inputs of information; animals use their N/A Information processing the brain; the signals are then processed with behaviors that help perceptions and memories to guide in the brain, resulting in immediate them grow and survive. their actions. behavior or memories. The food of almost any animal Organisms and populations are can be traced back to plants. dependent on their environmental Ecosystems have carrying capacities Plants depend on water Organisms are related in food interactions with both other living things resulting from biotic and abiotic factors. LS2.A and light to grow and on webs in which some animals eat and non-living factors, any of which The fundamental tension between resource Interdependent relationships in animals for pollination plants for food and other animals can limit their growth. Competitive, availability and organism populations affects ecosystems or to move their seeds eat the animals that eat plants, predatory, and mutually beneficial the abundance of species in any given around. while decomposers restore some interactions vary across ecosystems, but ecosystem. materials to the soil. the patterns are shared. Disciplinary Core Idea Progressions in the Next Generation Science Standards 43

OCR for page 374
(Continued) K–2 3–5 6–8 9–12 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration The atoms that make up the organisms provide most of the energy for life processes. in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly Only a fraction of matter consumed at the between the living and non-living parts lower level of a food web is transferred up, LS2.B Matter cycles between the air and [Content found in LS1.C of the ecosystem. Food webs model resulting in fewer organisms at higher levels. Cycles of matter and energy soil and among organisms as they and ESS3.A] how matter and energy are transferred At each link in an ecosystem elements are transfer in ecosystems live and die. among producers, consumers, and combined in different ways and matter and decomposers as the three groups energy are conserved. Photosynthesis and interact within an ecosystem. cellular respiration are key components of the global carbon cycle. If a biological or physical disturbance to an When the environment changes Ecosystem characteristics vary over ecosystem occurs, including one induced by some organisms survive and time. Disruptions to any part of an LS2.C human activity, the ecosystem may return reproduce, some move to new ecosystem can lead to shifts in all of Ecosystem dynamics, functioning, N/A to its more or less original state or become locations, some move into the its populations. The completeness or and resilience a very different ecosystem, depending on transformed environment, and integrity of an ecosystem’s biodiversity the complex set of interactions within the some die. is often used as a measure of its health. ecosystem. Being part of a group helps Group behavior has evolved because LS2.D animals obtain food, defend membership can increase the chances of Social interactions and group N/A N/A themselves, and cope with survival for individuals and their genetic behavior changes. relatives. DNA carries instructions for forming species’ LS3.A Genes chiefly regulate specific proteins, characteristics. Each cell in an organism Inheritance of traits which affect an individual’s traits. has the same genetic content, but genes expressed by cells can differ. Different organisms vary in how Young organisms are very they look and function because much, but not exactly, In sexual reproduction each parent they have different inherited The variation and distribution of traits like their parents and also contributes half the genes acquired information; the environment also in a population depend on genetic and resemble other organisms by the offspring, resulting in variation affects the traits that an organism environmental factors. Genetic variation LS3.B of the same kind. between parent and offspring. Genetic develops. can result from mutations caused by Variation of traits information can be altered because environmental factors or errors in DNA of mutations, which may result in replication or from chromosomes swapping beneficial, negative, or no change to sections during meiosis. proteins in or traits of an organism. 44 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

OCR for page 374
(Continued) K–2 3–5 6–8 9–12 The fossil record documents the Some living organisms resemble existence, diversity, extinction, and The ongoing branching that produces organisms that once lived on change of many life forms and their multiple lines of descent can be inferred LS4.A Earth. Fossils provide evidence environments through Earth’s history. by comparing DNA sequences, amino Evidence of common ancestry and N/A about the types of organisms and The fossil record and comparisons acid sequences, and anatomical and diversity environments that existed long of anatomical similarities between embryological evidence of different ago. organisms enable the inference of lines organisms. of evolutionary descent. Both natural and artificial selection Natural selection occurs only if there is Differences in characteristics result from certain traits giving some variation in the genes and traits of organisms LS4.B between individuals of the same N/A individuals an advantage in survival and in a population. Traits that positively affect Natural selection species provide advantages in reproduction, leading to predominance survival can become more common in a survival and reproduction. of certain traits in a population. population. Evolution results primarily from genetic Species can change over time in variation of individuals in a species, response to changes in environmental competition for resources, and proliferation conditions through adaptation Particular organisms can survive of organisms better able to survive and LS4.C by natural selection acting over N/A only in particular environments. reproduce. Adaptation means that the Adaptation generations. Traits that support distribution of traits in a population, as successful survival and reproduction well as species’ expansion, emergence, or in the new environment become more extinction, can change when conditions common. ----------------------------------------- change. Populations of organisms live in a variety of habitats. Change in those Biodiversity is increased by the formation A range of different habitats affects the organisms Changes in biodiversity can influence of new species and reduced by extinction. LS4.D organisms lives in living there. humans’ resources and the ecosystem Humans depend on biodiversity but also have Biodiversity and humans different places. services they rely on. adverse impacts on it. Sustaining biodiversity is essential to supporting life on Earth. Disciplinary Core Idea Progressions in the Next Generation Science Standards 45

OCR for page 374
Earth and Space Sciences Progression INCREASING SOPHISTICATION OF STUDENT THINKING K–2 3–5 6–8 9–12 Stars range greatly in size and Light spectra from stars are used distance from Earth, and this can to determine their characteristics, explain their relative brightness. processes, and life cycles. Solar activity creates the elements through ESS1.A ----------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------- nuclear fusion. The development The universe and its stars The solar system is part of the Milky of technologies has provided Way, which is one of many billions astronomical data that provide Patterns of movement of the of galaxies. empirical evidence for the Big Bang sun, moon, and stars as seen theory. from Earth can be observed, described, and predicted. Kepler’s Laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting The solar system contains many objects. Observations from astronomy Earth’s orbit and rotation and the varied objects held together by ESS1.B and space probes provide evidence orbit of the moon around Earth gravity. Solar system models explain Earth and the solar system for explanations of solar system cause observable patterns. and predict eclipses, lunar phases, formation. Changes in Earth’s tilt and and seasons. orbit cause climate changes such as ice ages. The rock record resulting from Rock strata and the fossil record tectonic and other geoscience Some events on Earth occur Certain features on Earth can be ESS1.C can be used as evidence to organize processes as well as objects from the very quickly; others can occur used to order events that have The history of planet Earth the relative occurrence of major solar system can provide evidence of very slowly. occurred in a landscape. historical events in Earth’s history. Earth’s early history and the relative ages of major geologic formations. Four major Earth systems interact. Energy flows and matter cycles Rainfall helps to shape the land and within and among Earth’s systems, affects the types of living things Feedback effects exist within and ESS2.A Wind and water change the including the sun and Earth’s interior found in a region. Water, ice, wind, among Earth’s systems. Earth’s materials and systems shape of the land. as primary energy sources. Plate organisms, and gravity break rocks, tectonics is one result of these soils, and sediments into smaller processes. pieces and move them around. Earth’s physical features occur in Plate tectonics is the unifying theory Maps show where things are ESS2.B patterns, as do earthquakes and that explains the movements of Radioactive decay within Earth’s located. The shapes and kinds of Plate tectonics and large-scale volcanoes. Maps can be used to rocks at Earth’s surface and geologic interior contributes to thermal land and water in any area can system interactions locate features and determine history. Maps are used to display convection in the mantle. be mapped. patterns in those events. evidence of plate movement. 46 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

OCR for page 374
(Continued) K–2 3–5 6–8 9–12 Water cycles among land, ocean, ESS2.C Water is found in many types Most of Earth’s water is in the ocean and atmosphere and is propelled The planet’s dynamics are greatly The roles of water in Earth’s surface of places and in different forms and much of Earth’s fresh water is in by sunlight and gravity. Density influenced by water’s unique processes on Earth. glaciers or underground. variations of sea water drive chemical and physical properties. interconnected ocean currents. Water movement causes weathering The role of radiation from the and erosion, changing landscape sun and its interactions with the Weather is the combination of Climate describes patterns of typical features. atmosphere, ocean, and land are the sunlight, wind, snow or rain, ESS2.D weather conditions over different ----------------------------------------- foundation for the global climate and temperature in a particular Weather and climate scales and variations. Historical Complex interactions determine system. Global climate models are region and time. People record weather patterns can be analyzed. local weather patterns and influence used to predict future changes, weather patterns over time. climate, including the role of the including changes influenced by ocean. human behavior and natural factors. The biosphere and Earth’s other ESS2.E Plants and animals can change Living things can affect the physical systems have many interconnections [Content found in LS4.A and LS4.D] Biogeology their local environment. characteristics of their environment. that cause a continual co-evolution -------------------------------------- of Earth’s surface and life on it Living things need water, air, Humans depend on Earth’s land, and resources from the land, Energy and fuels that humans use ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere and they live in places that have Resource availability has guided are derived from natural sources and for different resources, many of ESS3.A the things they need. Humans the development of human society their use affects the environment. which are limited or not renewable. Natural resources use natural resources for and the use of natural resources has Some resources are renewable over Resources are distributed unevenly everything they do. associated costs, risks, and benefits. time, others are not. around the planet as a result of past geologic processes. In a region some kinds of Some natural hazards can be Natural hazards and other geologic A variety of hazards result from severe weather are more likely predicted by mapping the history of events have shaped the course of ESS3.B natural processes; humans cannot than others. Forecasts allow those natural hazards in a region human history at local, regional, and Natural hazards eliminate hazards but can reduce communities to prepare for and understanding related geologic global scales. their impacts. severe weather. forces. Human activities have altered the Societal activities have had major biosphere, sometimes damaging it, Sustainability of human societies and Things people do can affect the effects on land, ocean, atmosphere, although changes to environments of the biodiversity that supports them ESS3.C environment, but they can make and even outer space. Societal can have different impacts for requires responsible management Human impacts on Earth systems choices to reduce their impacts. activities can also help protect different living things. Activities and of natural resources, including the Earth’s resources and environments. technologies can be engineered to development of technologies. reduce people’s impacts on Earth. Human activities affect global Global climate models used to warming. Decisions to reduce the predict changes continue to be ESS3.D impact of global warming depend N/A N/A improved, although discoveries Global climate change on understanding climate science, about the global climate system are engineering capabilities, and social ongoing and continually needed. dynamics. Disciplinary Core Idea Progressions in the Next Generation Science Standards 47