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APPENDIX I design to achieve solutions to particular human problems. Likewise, we broadly use the term “technology” to include ENGINEERING DESIGN IN THE NEXT all types of human-made systems and processes—not in GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS the limited sense often used in schools that equates tech- nology with modern computational and communications devices. Technologies result when engineers apply their understanding of the natural world and of human behav- ior to design ways to satisfy human needs and wants. (NRC, The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represent a com- 2012, pp. 11–12) mitment to integrate engineering design into the structure of The Framework’s definitions address two common misconceptions. science education by raising engineering design to the same level The first is that engineering design is not just applied science. As as scientific inquiry when teaching science disciplines at all levels, described in Appendix F: Science and Engineering Practices in the from kindergarten to twelfth grade. There are both practical and Next Generation Science Standards, the practices of engineering inspirational reasons for including engineering design as an essen- have much in common with the practices of science, although tial element of science education. engineering design has a different purpose and product than We anticipate that the insights gained and interests scientific inquiry. The second misconception is that technology provoked from studying and engaging in the practices describes all the ways that people have modified the natural of science and engineering during their K–12 schooling world to meet their needs and wants. Technology does not refer should help students see how science and engineering to just computers or electronic devices. are instrumental in addressing major challenges that con- The purpose of defining “engineering” more broadly in the front society today, such as generating sufficient energy, Framework and the NGSS is to emphasize engineering design preventing and treating diseases, maintaining supplies of practices that all citizens should learn. For example, students are clean water and food, and solving the problems of global expected to be able to define problems—situations that people environmental change. (NRC, 2012, p. 9) wish to change—by specifying criteria and constraints for accept- Providing students a foundation in engineering design allows able solutions, generating and evaluating multiple solutions, them to better engage in and aspire to solve the major societal building and testing prototypes, and optimizing a solution. These and environmental challenges they will face in the decades ahead. practices have not been explicitly included in science standards until now. KEY DEFINITIONS ENGINEERING DESIGN IN THE FRAMEWORK One of the problems of prior standards has been the lack of clear and consistent definitions of the terms “science,” “engineer- The term “engineering design” has replaced the older term “tech- ing,” and “technology.” A Framework for K–12 Science Education nological design,” consistent with the definition of engineering (Framework) defines these terms as follows: as a systematic practice for solving problems, and technology as the result of that practice. According to the Framework: “From In the K–12 context, “science” is generally taken to mean a teaching and learning point of view, it is the iterative cycle of the traditional natural sciences: physics, chemistry, biology, design that offers the greatest potential for applying science and (more recently) earth, space, and environmental knowledge in the classroom and engaging in engineering prac- sciences. . . . We use the term “engineering” in a very broad tices” (NRC, 2012, pp. 201–202). The Framework recommends that sense to mean any engagement in a systematic practice of 103

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students explicitly learn how to engage in engineering design may have traditionally been marginalized in the science class- practices to solve problems. room or experienced science as not being relevant to their lives The Framework also projects a vision of engineering design in or future. By asking questions and solving meaningful problems the science curriculum and of what students can accomplish from through engineering in local contexts (e.g., watershed planning, early school years to high school: medical equipment, instruments for communication for the deaf), diverse students deepen their science knowledge, come to view In some ways, children are natural engineers. They spon- science as relevant to their lives and future, and engage in science taneously build sand castles, dollhouses, and hamster in socially relevant and transformative ways. enclosures, and they use a variety of tools and materials for their own playful purposes. . . . Children’s capabili- From a global perspective, engineering offers opportunities for ties to design structures can then be enhanced by having “innovation” and “creativity” at the K–12 level. Engineering is them pay attention to points of failure and asking them a field that is critical to undertaking the world’s challenges, and to create and test redesigns of the bridge so that it is exposure to engineering activities (e.g., robotics and invention stronger. (NRC, 2012, p. 70) competitions) can spark interest in the study of science, technol- ogy, engineering, and mathematics and future careers (NSF, 2010). By the time these students leave high school, they can “under- This early engagement is particularly important for students who take more complex engineering design projects related to major have traditionally not considered science as a possible career global, national, or local issues” (NRC, 2012, p. 71). The core idea choice, including females and students from multiple languages of engineering design includes three component ideas: and cultures. A. Defining and delimiting engineering problems involves stating the problem to be solved as clearly as possible in terms of crite- ria for success and constraints or limits. ENGINEERING DESIGN IN THE B. Designing solutions to engineering problems begins with gen- NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS erating a number of different possible solutions, then evaluat- ing potential solutions to see which ones best meet the criteria In the NGSS, engineering design is integrated throughout the and constraints of the problem. document. First, a fair number of standards in the three disciplin- C. Optimizing the design solution involves a process in which solu- ary areas of life, physical, and earth and space sciences begin with tions are systematically tested and refined and the final design an engineering practice. In these standards, students demonstrate is improved by trading off less important features for those their understanding of science through the application of engi- that are more important. neering practices. Second, the NGSS also include separate stan- dards for engineering design at the K–2, 3–5, 6–8, and 9–12 grade It is important to point out that these component ideas do not always levels. This multi-pronged approach, including engineering design follow in order, any more than do the “steps” of scientific inquiry. At both as a set of practices and as a set of core ideas, is consistent any stage, a problem solver can redefine the problem or generate with the original intention of the Framework. new solutions to replace an idea that is just not working out. It is important to point out that the NGSS do not put forward a full set of standards for engineering education, but rather include ENGINEERING DESIGN IN RELATION TO only practices and ideas about engineering design that are consid- STUDENT DIVERSITY ered necessary for literate citizens. The standards for engineering design reflect the three component ideas of the Framework and The NGSS inclusion of engineering with science has major impli- progress at each grade span. cations for non-dominant student groups. From a pedagogical perspective, the focus on engineering is inclusive of students who 104 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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GRADES K–2 Define Identify situations Engineering design in the earliest grades introduces students to that people want “problems” as situations that people want to change. They can to change as problems that can use tools and materials to solve simple problems, use different be solved through representations to convey solutions, and compare different solu- engineering tions to a problem and determine which is best. Students in all grade levels are not expected to come up with original solutions, although original solutions are always welcome. Emphasis is on thinking through the needs or goals that need to be met and on which solutions best meet those needs and goals. Develop Optimize solutions Compare solutions, test Convey possible them, and solutions through evaluate each visual or physical representations GRADES 3–5 Define Specify criteria At the upper elementary grades, engineering design engages and constraints that a possible students in more formalized problem solving. Students define a solution to a problem using criteria for success and constraints or limits of pos- simple problem sible solutions. Students research and consider multiple possible must meet solutions to a given problem. Generating and testing solutions also becomes more rigorous as students learn to optimize solu- tions by revising them several times to obtain the best possible design. Optimize Develop Improve a solutions solution based on Research and results of simple explore multiple tests, including possible solutions failure points Engineering Design in the Next Generation Science Standards 105

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Define GRADES 6–8 Attend to precision of At the middle school level, students learn to sharpen the focus of criteria and problems by precisely specifying criteria and constraints of suc- constraints and considerations cessful solutions, taking into account not only what needs the likely to limit problem is intended to meet, but also the larger context within possible solutions which the problem is defined, including limits to possible solu- tions. Students can identify elements of different solutions and combine them to create new solutions. Students at this level are expected to use systematic methods to compare different solu- tions to see which best meet criteria and constraints, and to test and revise solutions a number of times in order to arrive at an Optimize Develop Use systematic solutions optimal design. processes to Combine parts of iteratively test different solutions and refine a to create new solution solutions Define GRADES 9–12 Attend to a broad range of Engineering design at the high school level engages students in considerations in criteria and complex problems that include issues of social and global sig- constraints for nificance. Such problems need to be broken down into simpler problems of social problems to be tackled one at a time. Students are also expected and global significance to quantify criteria and constraints so that it will be possible to use quantitative methods to compare the potential of different solutions. While creativity in solving problems is valued, empha- sis is on identifying the best solution to a problem, which often involves researching how others have solved it before. Students Optimize Prioritize criteria, Develop are expected to use mathematics and/or computer simulations to consider trade-offs, solutions test solutions under different conditions, prioritize criteria, con- and assess social Break a major and environmental problem into sider tradeoffs, and assess social and environmental impacts. impacts as a smaller problems complex solution that can be solved is tested and separately refined 106 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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CONCLUSION could certainly be a component of such courses but most likely do not represent the full scope of such courses or an engineering The inclusion of engineering design within the fabric of the NGSS pathway. Rather, the purpose of the NGSS is to emphasize the key has profound implications for curriculum, teaching, and assessment. knowledge and skills that all students need in order to engage fully All students need opportunities to acquire engineering design prac- as workers, consumers, and citizens in 21st-century society. tices and concepts alongside the practices and concepts of science. The decision to integrate engineering design into the science dis- REFERENCES ciplines is not intended either to encourage or discourage devel- opment of engineering courses. In recent years, many middle and NRC (National Research Council). (2012). A framework for K–12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. high schools have introduced engineering courses that build stu- Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. dents’ engineering skill, engage them in experiences using a variety NSF (National Science Foundation). (2010). Preparing the next genera- of technologies, and provide information on a range of engineer- tion of STEM innovators: Identifying and developing our nation’s ing careers. The engineering design standards included in the NGSS human capital. Washington, DC: NSF. Performance Expectations That Incorporate Engineering Practices Grade Physical Sciences Life Sciences Earth and Space Sciences Engineering K K-PS2-2 K-ESS3-2 K-2-ETS1-1 K-PS3-2 K-ESS3-3 K-2-ETS1-2 K-2-ETS1-3 1 1-PS4-4 1-LS1-1 2 2-PS1-2 2-LS2-2 2-ESS2-1 3 3-PS2-4 3-LS4-4 3-ESS3-1 3-5-ETS1-1 3-5-ETS1-2 4 4-PS3-4 4-ESS3-2 3-5-ETS1-3 4-PS4-3 5 6–8 MS-PS1-6 MS-LS2-5 MS-ETS1-1 MS-PS2-1 MS-ETS1-2 MS-PS3-3 MS-ETS1-3 MS-ETS1-4 9–12 HS-PS1-6 HS-LS2-7 HS-ESS3-2 HS-ETS1-1 HS-PS2-3 HS-LS4-6 HS-ESS3-4 HS-ETS1-2 HS-PS2-6 HS-ETS1-3 HS-PS3-3 HS-ETS1-4 HS-PS4-5 Engineering Design in the Next Generation Science Standards 107