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APPENDIX J can be applied through engineering to produce advances in technology. Advances in technology, in turn, provide SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, SOCIETY, scientists with new capabilities to probe the natural AND THE ENVIRONMENT world at larger or smaller scales; to record, manage, and analyze data; and to model ever more complex systems with greater precision. In addition, engineers’ efforts to develop or improve technologies often raise new ques- tions for scientists’ investigations. (NRC, 2012, p. 203) The goal that all students should learn about the relationships The interdependence of science—with its resulting discoveries and among science, technology, and society (known by the abbre- principles—and engineering—with its resulting technologies— viation STS) came to prominence in the United Kingdom and includes a number of ideas about how the fields of science and the United States in the early 1980s. The individual most closely engineering interrelate. One is the idea that scientific discoveries associated with this movement is Robert Yager, who has written enable engineers to do their work. For example, the discoveries of extensively on the topic (e.g., Yager, 1996). A study of state stan- early explorers of electricity enabled engineers to create a world dards (Koehler et al., 2007) has shown that STS became common linked by vast power grids that illuminate cities, enable commu- in state science education standards during the first decade of nications, and accomplish thousands of other tasks. Engineering the new millennium, with an increasing focus on environmental accomplishments also enable the work of scientists. For example, issues. Consequently, the core ideas that relate science and tech- the development of the Hubble Space Telescope and very sensitive nology to society and the natural environment in Chapter 8 of A light sensors have made it possible for astronomers to discover our Framework for K–12 Science Education (Framework) are consistent place in the universe, noticing previously unobserved planets and with efforts in science education for the past three decades. getting even further insight into the origin of stars and galaxies. The vision projected by the Framework is that science and engi- IN THE FRAMEWORK neering continuously interact and move each other forward, as expressed in the following statement: The Framework specifies two core ideas that relate science, tech- New insights from science often catalyze the emergence nology, society, and the environment: the interdependence of sci- of new technologies and their applications, which are ence, engineering, and technology and the influence of science, developed using engineering design. In turn, new tech- engineering, and technology on society and the natural world. nologies open opportunities for new scientific investiga- tions. (NRC, 2012, p. 210) THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF SCIENCE, This reflects the key roles both science and engineering play in ENGINEERING, AND TECHNOLOGY driving each other forward in the research and development cycle. The first core idea is that scientific inquiry, engineering design, and technological development are interdependent: THE INFLUENCE OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY, AND SCIENCE ON SOCIETY The fields of science and engineering are mutually sup- portive, and scientists and engineers often work together AND THE NATURAL WORLD in teams, especially in fields at the borders of science and The second core idea focuses on the more traditional STS—theme engineering. Advances in science offer new capabilities, that scientific and technological advances can have a profound new materials, or new understanding of processes that effect on society and the environment. 108

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Together, advances in science, engineering, and technol- communications and trade networks. In 1960 the world popula- ogy can have—and indeed have had—profound effects tion was 3 billion. Today it is more than 6 billion, and thanks to on human society, in such areas as agriculture, transporta- advances in medicine and public health, people are living longer. tion, health care, and communication, and on the natural Additionally, the growth of industrialization around the world environment. Each system can change significantly when has increased the rate at which natural resources are being new technologies are introduced, with both desired extracted, well beyond what might be expected from a doubling effects and unexpected outcomes. (NRC, 2012, p. 210). of world population alone. This idea has two complementary parts. The first is that scientific The second paragraph emphasizes the limits to growth imposed by discoveries and technological decisions affect human society and human society and by the environment, which has limited supplies the natural environment. The second is that people make decisions of certain non-renewable resources. Together, these paragraphs for social and environmental reasons that ultimately guide the point the way to new science education standards that will help work of scientists and engineers. As expressed in the Framework: today’s children prepare for a world in which technological change, From the earliest forms of agriculture to the latest and the consequent impact on society and natural resources, will technologies, all human activity has drawn on natural continue to accelerate. resources and has had both short- and long-term conse- quences, positive as well negative, for the health of both HOME AND COMMUNITY CONNECTIONS TO people and the natural environment. These consequences SCHOOL SCIENCE FOR STUDENT DIVERSITY have grown stronger in recent human history. Society has changed dramatically, and human populations and While it has long been recognized that building home-school con- longevity have increased, as advances in science and engi- nections is important for the academic success of non-dominant neering have influenced the ways in which people inter- student groups, in practice this is rarely done in an effective man- act with one another and with their surrounding natural ner. There is a perceived disconnect between the science practices environment. taught in schools and the science supported in the homes and Not only do science and engineering affect society; soci- communities of non-dominant student groups. Recent research has ety’s decisions (whether made through market forces or identified resources and strengths in the family and home environ- political processes) influence the work of scientists and ments of non-dominant student groups (NRC, 2009). Students bring engineers. These decisions sometimes establish goals and to the science classroom “funds of knowledge” that can serve as priorities for improving or replacing technologies; at other resources for academic learning when teachers find ways to vali- times they set limits, such as in regulating the extraction date and activate this prior knowledge (González et al., 2005). of raw materials or in setting allowable levels of pollution Several approaches build connections between home/community from mining, farming, and industry. (NRC, 2012, p. 212) and school science: (1) increasing parental involvement in their children’s science classrooms and encouraging parents’ roles as part- The first paragraph above refers to the central role that techno- ners in science learning, (2) engaging students in defining problems logical changes have had on society and the natural environment. and designing solutions of community projects in their neighbor- For example, the development of new systems for growing, hoods (typically engineering), and (3) focusing on science learning processing, and distributing food made possible the transition in informal environments. from widely dispersed hunter-gatherer groups to villages and eventually cities. While that change took place over thousands of years, in just the past generation there has been vast growth in the size of cities along with the establishment of new global Science, Technology, Society, and the Environment 109

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IN THE NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS idea is supported by evidence derived from certain technological advances. The connection between these core ideas and specific There is a broad consensus that these two core ideas belong in performance expectations is shown in the crosscutting concept the NGSS, but a majority of state teams recommended that these foundation box. ideas could best be illustrated through their connections to the The following matrix summarizes how the two core ideas dis- natural sciences disciplines. There are a number of performance cussed in this appendix progress across the grade levels. expectations that require students to demonstrate not only their understanding of a core idea in natural science, but also how that Science, Technology, Society, and the Environment Connections Matrix 1. Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology K–2 Connections Statements 3–5 Connections Statements 6–8 Connections Statements 9–12 Connections Statements •  cience and engineering involve the use of S •  cience and technology support each S •  ngineering advances have led to E •  cience and engineering complement each S tools to observe and measure things. other. important discoveries in virtually every other in the cycle known as research and •  ools and instruments are used to answer T field of science, and scientific discoveries development (R&D). scientific questions, while scientific have led to the development of entire •  any R&D projects may involve scientists, M discoveries lead to the development of industries and engineered systems. engineers, and others with wide ranges of new technologies. •  cience and technology drive each other S expertise. forward. 2. Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World K–2 Connections Statements 3–5 Connections Statements 6–8 Connections Statements 9–12 Connections Statements •  very human-made product is designed E •  eople’s needs and wants change over P •  ll human activity draws on natural A •  odern civilization depends on major M by applying some knowledge of the time, as do their demands for new and resources and has both short- and long- technological systems, such as agriculture, natural world and is built by using natural improved technologies. term consequences, positive as well as health, water, energy, transportation, materials. •  ngineers improve existing technologies E negative, for the health of people and the manufacturing, construction, and •  aking natural materials to make things T or develop new ones to increase their natural environment. communications. impacts the environment. benefits, decrease known risks, and meet •  he uses of technologies and any T •  ngineers continuously modify these E societal demands. limitation on their use are driven by systems to increase benefits while •  hen new technologies become available, W individual or societal needs, desires, decreasing costs and risks. they can bring about changes in the way and values; by the findings of scientific •  ew technologies can have deep impacts N people live and interact with one another. research; and by differences in such on society and the environment, including factors as climate, natural resources, and some that were not anticipated. economic conditions. Thus, technology use •  nalysis of costs and benefits is a critical A varies from region to region over time. aspect of decisions about technology. 110 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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Performance Expectations Related to the Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology Grade Physical Sciences Life Sciences Earth and Space Sciences Engineering K K-ESS3-2 1 2 3 3-PS2-4 3-LS4-3 4 4-PS4-3 4-ESS3-1 5 6–8 MS-PS1-3 MS-LS1-1 MS-ESS1-3 MS-LS4-5 9–12 HS-PS4-5 HS-ESS1-2 HS-ESS1-4 HS-ESS2-3 Performance Expectations Related to the Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World Grade Physical Sciences Life Sciences Earth and Space Sciences Engineering K K-ESS3-2 1 1-PS4-4 1-LS1-1 2 2-PS1-2 2-ESS2-1 3 3-ESS3-1 3-5-ETS1-1 3-5-ETS1-2 4 4-PS3-4 4-ESS3-1 4-ESS3-2 5 6–8 MS-PS1-3 MS-LS2-5 MS-ESS3-3 MS-ETS1-1 MS-PS2-1 MS-ESS3-4 MS-PS4-3 9–12 HS-PS3-3 HS-ESS2-2 HS-ETS1-1 HS-PS4-2 HS-ESS3-1 HS-ETS1-3 HS-PS4-5 HS-ESS3-2 HS-ESS3-3 HS-ESS3-4 Science, Technology, Society, and the Environment 111

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CONCLUSION In the decades ahead, the continued growth of the world’s popu- lation along with technological advances and scientific discoveries will continue to impact the lives of students. Whether or not they choose to pursue careers in technical fields, they will be asked to make decisions that influence the development of technologies and the direction of scientific research that cannot be imagined today. Consequently, it is important for teachers to engage their students in learning about the complex interactions among sci- ence, technology, society, and the environment. REFERENCES González, N., Moll, L. C., and Amanti, C. (2005). Funds of knowledge: Theorizing practices in households, communities, and classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Koehler, C., Giblin, D., Moss, D., Faraclas, E., and Kazerounian, K. (2007). Are concepts of technical and engineering literacy included in state curriculum standards? A regional overview of the nexus between technical & engineering literacy and state science frameworks. Proceedings of the ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Honolulu, HI. NRC (National Research Council). (2009). Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NRC. (2012). A framework for K–12 science education: Practices, cross- cutting concepts, and core ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Yager, R. (1996). Science/technology/society: As reform in science edu- cation. Albany: State University of New York Press. 112 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS