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APPENDIX M Connections to the English/language arts (ELA) CCSS are included across all disciplines and grade bands in the final version of CONNECTIONS TO THE COMMON CORE the NGSS. However, Appendix M focuses on connections to the STATE STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, which SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS only cover grades 6–12. Therefore this appendix likewise only lists connections for grades 6–12. See the Common Core State Standards website for more information about the Literacy Standards, available at: http://www.corestandards.org/ ELA-Literacy. Literacy skills are critical to building knowledge in science. To ensure the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for literacy work in tandem with the specific content demands outlined in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the NGSS development team worked with the CCSS writing team to identify key literacy connections to the specific content demands outlined in the NGGS. As the CCSS affirms, reading in science requires an appreciation of the norms and conventions of the discipline of science, including understand- ing the nature of evidence used, an attention to precision and detail, and the capacity to make and assess intricate arguments, synthesize complex information, and follow detailed procedures and accounts of events and concepts. Students also need to be able to gain knowledge from elaborate diagrams and data that convey information and illustrate scientific concepts. Likewise, writing and presenting information orally are key means for stu- dents to assert and defend claims in science, demonstrate what they know about a concept, and convey what they have experi- enced, imagined, thought, and learned. Every effort has been made to ensure consistency between the CCSS and the NGSS. As is the case with the mathematics stan- dards, the NGSS should always be interpreted and implemented in such a way that they do not outpace or misalign to the grade-by- grade standards in the CCSS for literacy (this includes the develop- ment of NGSS-aligned instructional materials and assessments). Below are the NGSS science and engineering practices and the corresponding CCSS Literacy Anchor Standards and portions of the Standards for Science and Technical Subjects. 158

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Science and Engineering Practice: Asking Questions and Defining Problems Students at any grade level should be able to ask questions of each other about the texts they read, the features of the phenomena they observe, and the conclusions they draw from their models or scientific investigations. For engineering, they should ask questions to define the problem to be solved and to elicit ideas that lead to the constraints and specifications for its solution (NRC, 2012, p. 56). Supporting CCSS Literacy Anchor Standards and Relevant Portions of the Corresponding Standards for Science and Technical Subjects Connection to Science and Engineering Practice CCR Reading Anchor #1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences Evidence plays a critical role in the kinds of questions asked, from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. information gathered, and findings reported in science and • RST.6-8.1: “support analysis of science and technical texts.” technical texts. The notion of close reading in Reading Standard 1 • RST.9-10.1: “support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations emphasizes the use of asking and refining questions in order to or descriptions.” answer them with evidence that is either explicitly stated or • RST.11-12.1: “support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author implied. makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.” CCR Reading Anchor #7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including Scientists and engineers present data in a myriad of visual visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. formats in order to reveal meaningful patterns and trends. • RST.6-8.7: “Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of Reading Standard 7 speaks directly to the importance of asking that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).” questions about and evaluating data presented in different • RST.9-10.7: “Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form formats. (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.” • RST.11-12.7: “evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.” CCR Reading Anchor #8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the Challenging or clarifying scientific hypotheses, arguments, validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. experiments, or conclusions—and the evidence and premises • RST.6-8.8: “Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation.” that support them—are key to this practice. Reading Standard 8 • RST.9-10.8: “Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a emphasizes evaluating the validity of arguments and whether the recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.” evidence offered backs up the claims logically. • RST.11-12.8: “Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.” Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 159

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CCR Writing Anchor #7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused Generating focused questions and well-honed scientific inquiries questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. is key to conducting investigations and defining problems. The • RST.6-8.7: “answer a question (including a self-generated question) … generating additional related, research practices reflected in Writing Standard 7 reflect the focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.” skills needed for successful completion of such research-based • RST.9-12.7: “narrow or broaden inquiry when appropriate.” inquiries. CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations The ability to pose relevant questions, clarify or elaborate on the and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and ideas of others, or request information from others is crucial to persuasively. learning and conducting investigations in science class. Speaking • SL.8.1: “Pose … specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion.” and Listening Standard 1 speaks directly to the importance of • SL.9-10.1: “posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger asking and refining questions to clarify ideas that generate ideas.” solutions and explanations. • SL.11-12.1: “posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence.” CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #3: Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence Evaluating the soundness of a speaker’s reasoning and evidence and rhetoric. concerning scientific theories and concepts through a series of • SL.8.3: “evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and sufficiency of the evidence, and identifying when inquiries teaches students to be discriminating thinkers. Speaking irrelevant evidence is introduced.” and Listening Standard 3 directly asserts that students must • SL.9-10.3: “identifying fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.” be able to critique a point of view from the perspective of the • SL.11-12.3: “assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis.” evidence provided and reasoning advanced. 160 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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Science and Engineering Practice: Planning and Carrying Out Investigations Students should have opportunities to plan and carry out several different kinds of investigations during their K–12 years. At all levels, they should engage in investigations that range from those structured by the teacher—in order to expose an issue or question that they would be unlikely to explore on their own (e.g., measuring specific properties of materials)—to those that emerge from students’ own questions (NRC, 2012, p. 61). Supporting CCSS Literacy Anchor Standards and Relevant Portions of the Corresponding Standards for Science and Technical Subjects Connection to Science and Engineering Practice CCR Reading Anchor #3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of Systematic investigations in the field or laboratory lie a text. at the heart of scientific inquiry. Reading Standard 8 • RST.6-8.3: “Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or emphasizes the importance of accuracy in carrying out performing technical tasks.” such complex experiments and procedures, in following • RST.9-10.3: “Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking a course of action that will provide the best evidence to measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.” support conclusions. • RST.11-12.3: “Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.” CCR Writing Anchor #7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, Planning and carrying out investigations to test demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. hypotheses or designs is central to scientific and engineering activity. The research practices reflected in Writing Standard 7 reflect the skills needed for successful completion of such research-based inquiries. CCR Writing Anchor #8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility Collecting relevant data across a broad spectrum of and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. sources in a systematic fashion is a key element of this • WHST.6-8.8: “quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others.” scientific practice. Writing Standard 8 spells out the • WHST.9-10.8: “assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question.” importance of gathering applicable information from • WHST.11-12.8: “assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and multiple reliable sources to support claims. audience.” CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations Carrying out investigations in collaborative settings and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and is crucial to learning in science class and engineering persuasively. settings. Speaking and Listening Standard 1 speaks • SL.8.1: “Come … having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by directly to the importance of exchanging theories and referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion … define evidence cooperatively and collaboratively to carrying out individual roles as needed.” investigations. • SL.9-10.1: “Come … having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas … make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.” • SL.11-12.1: “Determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.” Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 161

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Science and Engineering Practice: Analyzing and Interpreting Data Once collected, data must be presented in a form that can reveal any patterns and relationships and that allows results to be communicated to others. Because raw data as such have little meaning, a major practice of scientists is to organize and interpret data through tabulating, graphing, or statistical analysis. Such analysis can bring out the meaning of data—and their relevance—so that they may be used as evidence. Engineers, too, make decisions based on evidence that a given design will work; they rarely rely on trial and error. Engineers often analyze a design by creating a model or prototype and collecting extensive data on how it performs, including under extreme conditions. Analysis of this kind of data not only informs design decisions and enables the prediction or assessment of performance but also helps define or clarify problems, determine economic feasibility, evaluate alternatives, and investigate failures (NRC, 2012, pp. 61–62). Supporting CCSS Literacy Anchor Standards and Relevant Portions of the Corresponding Standards for Science and Technical Subjects Connection to Science and Engineering Practice CCR Reading Anchor #7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually Scientists and engineers present data in a myriad of visual and quantitatively, as well as in words. formats in order to reveal meaningful patterns and trends. • RST.6-8.7: “Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that Reading Standard 7 speaks directly to the importance information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).” of understanding and presenting information that has • RST.9-10.7: “Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a been gathered in various formats to reveal patterns and table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.” relationships and allow for deeper explanations and • RST.11-12.7: “Evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative analyses. data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.” CCR Reading Anchor #9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build Scientists and engineers use technology to allow them to knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. draw on multiple sources of information in order to create • RST.6-8.9: “Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia data sets. Reading Standard 9 identifies the importance sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.” of analyzing multiple sources in order to inform design • RST.9-10.9: “Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own decisions and create a coherent understanding of a experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.” process or concept. • RST.11-12.9: “Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.” CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and Central to the practice of scientists and engineers is formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. integrating data drawn from multiple sources in order to • SL.8.2: “Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, create a cohesive vision of what the data mean. Speaking orally).” and Listening Standard 2 addresses the importance of • SL.9-10.2: “Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, such synthesizing activities to building knowledge and quantitatively, orally), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.” defining and clarifying problems. This includes evaluating • SL.11-12.2: “Evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the the credibility and accuracy of data and identifying data.” possible sources of error. CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #5: Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express Presenting data for the purposes of cross-comparison is information and enhance understanding of presentations. essential for identifying the best design solution or scientific • SL.8.5: “Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and explanation. Speaking and Listening Standard 5 stresses the evidence.” importance of visual displays of data within presentations • SL.9-12.5: “Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in in order to enhance understanding of the relevance of presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence.” the evidence. That way others can make critical decisions regarding what is being claimed based on the data. 162 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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Science and Engineering Practice: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions Asking students to demonstrate their own understanding of the implications of a scientific idea by developing their own explanations of phenomena, whether based on observations they have made or models they have developed, engages them in an essential part of the process by which conceptual change can occur. In engineering, the goal is a design rather than an explanation. The process of developing a design is iterative and systematic, as is the process of developing an explanation or a theory in science. Engineers’ activities, however, have elements that are distinct from those of scientists. These elements include specifying constraints and criteria for desired qualities of the solution, developing a design plan, producing and testing models or prototypes, selecting among alternative design features to optimize the achievement of design criteria, and refining design ideas based on the performance of a prototype or simulation (NRC, 2012, pp. 68–69). Supporting CCSS Literacy Anchor Standards and Relevant Portions of the Corresponding Standards for Science and Technical Subjects Connection to Science and Engineering Practice CCR Reading Anchor #1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical Evidence plays a critical role in determining a theory inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from in science and a design solution in engineering. The the text. notion of close reading in Reading Standard 1 • RST.6-8.1: “support analysis of science and technical texts.” emphasizes pursuing investigations into well- • RST.9-10.1: “support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations supported theories and design solutions on the basis or descriptions.” of evidence that is either explicitly stated or implied. • RST.11-12.1: “support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.” CCR Reading Anchor #2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; Part of the power of a scientific theory or engineering summarize the key supporting details and ideas. design is its ability to be cogently explained. That • RST.6-8.2: “provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.” ability to determine and clearly state an idea lies at • RST.9-10.2: “trace the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept.” the heart of Reading Standard 2. • RST.11-12.2: “summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.” CCR Reading Anchor #8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the Constructing theories and designing solutions both validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. require analysis that is rooted in rational argument • RST.6-8.8: “Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation.” and in evidence stemming from an understanding of • RST.9-10.8: “Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or the world. Reading Standard 8 emphasizes evaluating a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.” the validity of arguments and whether the evidence • RST.11-12.8: “Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analyses, and conclusions in a science or technical text, offered backs up the claim logically. verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.” Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 163

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CCR Writing Anchor #2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and Building a theory or model that explains the natural information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. world requires close attention to how to weave • WHST.6-8.2: “Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or together evidence from multiple sources. With a other information and examples.” focus on clearly communicating complex ideas and • WHST.9-10.2: “Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, information by critically choosing, arranging, and concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of analyzing information, Writing Standard 2 requires the topic.” students to develop theories with the end goal of • WHST.11-12.2: “Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended explanation in mind. definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.” CCR Writing Anchor #8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the Collecting relevant data across a broad spectrum credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. of sources in a systematic fashion is a key element • WHST.6-8.8: “quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others.” of constructing a theory with explanatory power or • WHST.9-10.8: “assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate a design that meets multiple constraints. Writing information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas.” Standard 8 spells out the importance of gathering • WHST.11-12.8: “assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, applicable information from multiple reliable sources and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas.” in order to construct well-honed explanations. CCR Writing Anchor #9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and The route toward constructing a rigorous explanatory research. account centers on garnering the necessary empirical • WHST.6-12.9: “Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.” evidence to support a theory or design. That same focus on generating evidence that can be analyzed is at the heart of Writing Standard 9. CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that A theory in science and a design in engineering listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style appropriate to the task, are a rational explanatory account of how the purpose, and audience. world works in light of the evidence. Speaking and • SL.8.4: “Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with Listening Standard 4 stresses how the presentation of relevant evidence, sound and valid reasoning.” findings crucially relies on how the evidence is used • SL.9-10.4: “Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically.” to illuminate the line of reasoning embedded in the • SL.11-12.4: “Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct explanation offered. perspective … alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed.” 164 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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Science and Engineering Practice: Engaging in Argument from Evidence The study of science and engineering should produce a sense of the process of argument necessary for advancing and defending a new idea or an explanation of a phenomenon and the norms for conducting such arguments. In that spirit, students should argue for the explanations they construct, defend their interpretations of the associated data, and advocate for the designs they propose (NRC, 2012, p. 73). Supporting CCSS Literacy Anchor Standards and Relevant Portions of the Corresponding Standards for Science and Technical Subjects Connection to Science and Engineering Practice CCR Reading Anchor #6: Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. The central motivation of scientists and engineers is to • RST.6-8.6: “Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an put forth what they believe is the best explanation for experiment in a text.” a natural phenomenon or design solution and to verify • RST.9-10.6: “Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an that representation through well-wrought arguments. experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.” Understanding the point of view of scientists and • RST.11-12.6: “Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an engineers and how that point of view shapes the experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.” content of the explanation is what Reading Standard 6 asks students to attune to. CCR Reading Anchor #8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of Formulating the best explanation or solution to a the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. problem or phenomenon stems from advancing an • RST.6-8.8: “Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation....” argument whose premises are rational and supported • RST.9-10.8: “Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a with evidence. Reading Standard 8 emphasizes recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.” evaluating the validity of arguments and whether the • RST.11-12.8: “Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analyses, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying evidence offered backs up the claim logically. the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.” CCR Reading Anchor #9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build Implicit in the practice of identifying the best knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. explanation or design solution is comparing and • RST.6-8.9: “Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia contrasting competing proposals. Reading Standard 9 sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.” identifies the importance of comparing different sources • RST.9-10.9: “Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own in the process of creating a coherent understanding of experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.” a phenomenon, concept, or design solution. • RST.11-12.9: “Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.” Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 165

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CCR Writing Anchor #1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid Central to the process of engaging in scientific thought reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. or engineering practices is the notion that what will • WHST.6-8.1: “Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate emerge is backed up by rigorous argument. Writing an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.” Standard 1 places argumentation at the heart of the • WHST.9-10.1: “Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing CCSS for science and technology subjects, stressing the out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a importance of logical reasoning, relevant evidence, and manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.” credible sources. • WHST.11-12.1: “Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.” CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and Reasoning and argument require critical listening collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. and collaboration skills in order to identify the best • SL.8.1: “Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and explanation for a natural phenomenon or the best comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas. Acknowledge new information expressed by others, solution to a design problem. Speaking and Listening and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.” Standard 1 speaks directly to the importance of • SL.9-10.1: “Actively incorporate others into the discussion and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions. comparing and evaluating competing ideas through Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when argument to cooperatively and collaboratively identify warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the the best explanation or solution. evidence and reasoning presented.” • SL.11-12.1: “Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.” CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #3: Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and Evaluating the reasoning in an argument based on rhetoric. the evidence present is crucial for identifying the best • SL.8.3: “evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and sufficiency of the evidence, and identifying when design or scientific explanation. Speaking and Listening irrelevant evidence is introduced.” Standard 3 directly asserts that students must be • SL.9-10.3: “identifying fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.” able to critique the point of view within an argument • SL.11-12.3: “assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis.” presented orally from the perspective of the evidence provided and reasoning advanced by others. CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners The practice of engaging in argument from evidence is can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style appropriate to the task, purpose, and a key ingredient in determining the best explanation for audience. a natural phenomenon or the best solution to a design • SL.8.4: “Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant problem. Speaking and Listening Standard 4 stresses evidence, sound and valid reasoning.” how the presentation of findings crucially relies on how • SL.9-10.4: “Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically.” the evidence is used to illuminate the line of reasoning • SL.11-12.4: “Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective embedded in the explanation offered. … alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed.” 166 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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Science and Engineering Practice: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information Any education in science and engineering needs to develop students’ ability to read and produce domain-specific text. As such, every science or engineering lesson is in part a language lesson, particularly reading and producing the genres of texts that are intrinsic to science and engineering (NRC, 2012, p. 76). Supporting CCSS Literacy Anchor Standards and Relevant Portions of the Corresponding Standards for Science and Technical Subjects Connection to Science and Engineering Practice CCR Reading Anchor #2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the Part of the power of a scientific theory or engineering key supporting details and ideas. design is its ability to be cogently explained. That ability • RST.6-8.2: “provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.” to determine and clearly state or summarize a salient • RST.9-10.2: “trace the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept.” scientific concept or phenomenon lies at the heart of • RST.11-12.2: “summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in Reading Standard 2. simpler but still accurate terms.” CCR Reading Anchor #7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually A key practice within scientific and engineering and quantitatively, as well as in words. communities is communicating about data through • RST.6-8.7: “Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that the use of tables, diagrams, graphs, and models. information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).” Reading Standard 7 speaks directly to the importance • RST.9-10.7: “Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a of understanding information that has been gathered table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.” by investigators in visual formats that reveal deeper • RST.11-12.7: “Evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative explanations and analyses. data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.” CCR Reading Anchor #9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge The end goal of these science and engineering practices or to compare the approaches the authors take. is to position scientists and engineers to be able to • RST.6-8.9: “Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia evaluate the merit and validity of claims, methods, and sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.” designs. Reading Standard 9 identifies the importance • RST.9-10.9: “Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own of synthesizing information from a range of sources to experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.” the process of creating a coherent understanding of a • RST.11-12.9: “Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent phenomenon or concept. understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.” CCR Reading Anchor #10: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and When reading scientific and technical texts, students proficiently. need to be able to gain knowledge from challenging • RST.6-8.10: “By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity texts that often make extensive use of elaborate band independently and proficiently.” diagrams and data to convey information and illustrate • RST.9-10.10: “By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9–10 text concepts. Reading standard 10 asks students to read complexity band independently and proficiently.” complex informational texts in these fields with • RST.11-12.10: “By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grade 11 CCR text independence and confidence. complexity band independently and proficiently.” Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 167

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CCR Writing Anchor #2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information The demand for precision in expression is an essential clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. requirement of scientists and engineers, and using the • WHST.6-8.2: “include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding multiple means available to them is a crucial part of comprehension…. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other that expectation. With a focus on clearly communicating information and examples.” complex ideas and information by critically choosing, • WHST.9-10.2: “include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding arranging, and analyzing information—particularly comprehension…. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, through the use of visual means—Writing Standard 2 quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.” requires students to develop their claims with the end • WHST.11-12.2: “include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding goal of explanation in mind. comprehension…. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.” CCR Writing Anchor #8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and Collecting relevant data across a broad spectrum of accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. sources in a systematic fashion is a key element of • WHST.6-8.8: “using search terms effectively … quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others.” assessing the validity of claims, methods, and designs. • WHST.9-10.8: “using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research Writing Standard 8 spells out the importance of question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas.” gathering applicable information from multiple reliable • WHST.11-12.8: “using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of sources so that information can be communicated the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas.” accurately. CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and Reasoning and argument require critical listening and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. collaboration skills in order to evaluate the merit and • SL.8.1: “Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments validity of claims, methods, and designs. Speaking and with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas. Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when Listening Standard 1 speaks directly to the importance warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.” of comparing and assessing competing ideas through • SL.9-10.1: “Actively incorporate others into the discussion and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions. extended discussions grounded in evidence. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.” • SL.11-12.1: “Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.” CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners Central to the professional activity of scientists and can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style appropriate to the task, purpose, and engineers alike is communicating their findings clearly audience. and persuasively. Speaking and Listening Standard 4 • SL.8.4: “Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant stresses how the presentation of findings crucially relies evidence, sound and valid reasoning.” on how the evidence is used to illuminate the line of • SL.9-10.4: “Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically.” reasoning embedded in the explanation offered. • SL.11-12.4: “Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective … alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed.” CCR Speaking and Listening Anchor #5: Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express Presenting data for the purposes of communication is information and enhance understanding of presentations. essential for evaluating the merit and validity of claims, • SL.8.5: “Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and methods, and designs. Speaking and Listening Standard 5 evidence.” stresses the importance of visual or digital displays of data • SL.9-12.5: “Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in within presentations in order to enhance understanding of presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence.” the evidence. That way others can make critical decisions regarding what is being claimed based on the data. 168 NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

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REFERENCE NRC (National Research Council). (2012). A framework for K–12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 169

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