Recommendation 3. Theoretical and applied research on response mechanisms should be undertaken so that the properties and applicability of the models become known for estimates of both level and change.

Recommendation 4. A systematic summarization of information from various surveys should be undertaken on the proportions of respondents for specified parts of populations and for particular questions in stated contexts.

Recommendation 5. Research is needed to distinguish the characteristics of nonrespondents as opposed to respondents and to assess the impact of questionnaire design and data collection procedures on the level of nonresponse.

Recommendation 6. Data sets that permit good estimates of bias and variance to be made when various statistical methods of dealing with nonresponse are adopted should be made publicly available. Such data sets could be used for testing various methods of bias reduction and for assessing effects of the methods on variances. They could also be used for the evaluation of more general methods depending on models.

Recommendation 7. Theoretical and empirical research should be undertaken on methods of dealing with nonresponse in longitudinal and panel surveys.

Recommendation 8. Theoretical and empirical research on the effects of nonresponse on more complex methods of analysis of sample survey data, e.g., multivariate analysis, should be undertaken.

Recommendation 9. A consistent terminology should be adopted for descriptive parameters of nonresponse problems and for methods used to handle nonresponse in order to aid communication on nonresponse problems.

Recommendation 10. Research on response mechanisms that depend on reasons for nonresponse should be undertaken.

Recommendation 11. Data on costs should be obtained and analyzed in relation to nonresponse procedures so that objective cost-effective decisions may become increasingly possible.

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