cThe tsunami generally flooded emergency diesel generators, power panels, and backup batteries, resulting in the loss of AC and DC power except for some isolated systems and standalone battery-operated instrumentation. The immediate result was the loss of normal control room lighting, indicators, and controls. All units except Unit 6 lost AC power within 5 minutes after the tsunami flooded the plant (Investigation Committee, 2011, p. 108). Units 1, 2, and 4 also lost DC power shortly after the tsunami because of flooding of the switchgear and batteries. While the air-cooled Unit 2 emergency diesel generator was running at the time, the electrical switchgear located belowgrade was flooded and subsequently failed. Although there were intermittent signs of power on some indicators in Units 1 and 2, reliable DC power was only available by connecting arrays of scavenged vehicle batteries to selected systems and instrumentation in the control rooms. Unit 3 DC power remained available for emergency lighting and indicators for some time. The Unit 3 DC bus escaped flooding, and sufficient battery capacity was available to operate the RCIC, SRVs, and HPCI for up to 36 h. Ultimately, vehicle batteries had to also be employed in Unit 3 to operate critical systems after the installed backup battery was depleted.

dThe IC system lost its ability to effectively cool the reactor in Unit 1 at approximately the time that AC and DC power was lost, due to system fail-safe control logic. When DC power to the logic circuit is lost, an interlocking operation is activated and all four isolation valves are designed to close automatically (TEPCO, 2012b, p. 195), effectively shutting off the IC. Without AC power, the valves inside containment cannot be reopened; thus, it was not possible to recover the IC system without an AC power source. A schematic of the IC system is provided in Chapter 2 (Figure 2.7) and more complete description of the automated fail-safe control logic is provided in Chapter 4 (Section 4.3.1.1).

eUnit 2 RCIC was manually started for the last time just prior to the loss of all electric power at ~+54 min. The loss of power at ~+54 min compromised the ability to monitor or control RCIC injection to the RPV in Unit 2. In Unit 3, where DC power was not lost, RCIC operated as intended until it failed at +20 h into the event and could not be restarted. The HPCI started automatically (on a low-reactor-water-level signal) an hour later and began to restore water level in the RPV. HPCI was manually tripped at +35.9 h into the event and attempts to restart it failed.

fAs described in Sections 4.3.1-4.3.3, operators had limited options for depressurization given the blackout and the ensuing chaotic conditions caused by the destruction from the earthquake and flooding waters.

gAnalysis results suggest that reactor water level reached the TAF at about 18:10 on March 11 and core damage started at about 18:50. (TEPCO, 2012b, pp. 190-191).

hThe MAAP5 simulations performed by EPRI (2013) indicate that the RCIC system in Unit 2 operated in a degraded mode that maintained the core cooling for nearly 70 h. During the 70-h period the RPV pressure varied between ~7.5 MPa and ~5.3 MPa (design pressure is 8.24 MPa). The rise continued to the SRV setpoint and at ~+75 h into the event the RPV was depressurized to allow seawater injection. However, pressure increases between approximately +76 h and +84 h into the event compromised the continuity of seawater injection.

iThe operators were able to control the amount of water added to the RPV in Unit 3 until +20 h into the event. The RCIC system operated under conditions for which it was designed (DC power available). However, at about +20 h, the RCIC failed and could not be restarted. On failure of RCIC, the HPCI system automatically started on low reactor water level, rapidly restoring the level. The significant steam extracted via the operation of the HPCI system led to a rapid decrease in RPV pressure. For a little under 10 h, the HPCI system operated at low



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