rather than pursuit of personal priorities. The objective should be to manage costs, not budgets. The “use it or lose it” mentality on budgets will have to be changed. It should be encouraged to return unspent money to the enterprise at the end of the fiscal year.

This participant asserted that Lean management also requires that all members of the organization understand the business and its objectives through training. In the Air Force case, this includes both warfighters and civilians. Various educational institutions were suggested as providers of this training, including the Air War College, although this would not be available to civilians. However, Lean management is not just to be pursued at the enterprise level. The same participant stressed that the goal should be to give every first line supervisor Lean management training. In his experience, Lean management works well on the shop floor, and in his business, it led to reductions in both overhead and paperwork. Another participant with a background in the Army testified that Lean management implementation tools and performance metrics are available and helped to facilitate Army policy updates and to rationalize supply regulations.



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