and manipulate brain activity at the molecular level. He studied neuroscience at Brown and received his Ph.D. in biological engineering from MIT as a Hertz and Soros Fellow. Working with Alan Jasanoff and Robert Langer, Shapiro created the first-ever functional MRI sensors for neurotransmitters. He was also a cofounder of Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems, whose BrainGate technology allowed paralyzed people to control external devices directly with their thoughts. As a venture principal at Third Rock Ventures, an $800 million life sciences venture capital firm, Shapiro helped launch companies focused on novel treatments for chronic pain, cancer, and other diseases. In 2010 he was recognized by the Technology Review as one of the world’s top 35 innovators under age 35.

George W. Sutton (NAE) is a consultant. He received his B.M.E (with honors) in mechanical engineering from Cornell University and his Ph.D. in mechanics and physics (magna cum laude) from Caltech. He made the first measurements of the stresses in a solid caused by cavitation. He also was the first to measure the heat transfer rate in the throat of a rocket nozzle at Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At G.E., he invented the first successful heat protection material for hypersonic reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere. It was an active material – as it was heated during reentry the gases driven off it reduced the heat transfer to the surface. It, and its variants, have been used on all reentry vehicles and satellite film recovery vehicles, including today’s. At the Avco-Everett Research Laboratory he helped develop high-power lasers. For its commercial electron-beam ionized, electrically pumped closed cycle carbon dioxide laser, his contribution was the heat-conducting foil for the electron beam. He also developed the prototype of the electrical transcutaneous energy transfer device, using ferrites, for artificial hearts that has FDA approval for 5,000 transplants. His work on ballistic missile defense included cooled windows, uncooled optical dome and window thermal radiance, stresses, and optical distortions. This included analysis of deformable mirrors to correct aero-optical distortions. He also analyzed the boresight distortion of optical seekers on interceptors due to bending of the vehicle airframe when the divert motors fire. He has written over 100 papers and coauthored three books. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has served on six studies. He was editor-in-chief of the AIAA Journal for almost 30 years, which he performed in addition to working full time. He is an Honorary Fellow of the AIAA and has received medals and awards for his work.

Elias Towe is currently a professor of electrical and computer engineering, and the Albert and Ethel Grobstein Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. He was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he received the bachelor of science, master of science, and the Ph.D. degrees from the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Dr. Towe was a Vinton Hayes Fellow at MIT. After leaving MIT he became a professor of electrical and computer engineering, and engineering physics at the University of Virginia. He also served as a program manager in the Microsystems Technology Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) while he was a professor at the University of Virginia. In 2001, he joined the faculty at Carnegie Mellon University. Towe is a recipient of several awards and honors that include the National Science Foundation Young Investigator Award, the Young Faculty Teaching Award, and the Outstanding Achievement from the Office of the Secretary of Defense. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the Optical Society of America (OSA), the American Physical Society (APS), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Haydn N. Wadley is a university professor and Edgar Starke Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Virginia. He joined the department of materials science and engineering in October 1988. He has very broad interests in materials science. His current research explores high-temperature thermal protection systems (thermal barrier coatings, liquid metal heat plates for hypersonic vehicle leading edges) and new materials for the mitigation of

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