adaptive structures in the aerospace industry, for example, is nonexistent. However, he noted, hobby applications in model toy aircraft where the flight surfaces are controlled by magnetic shape memory alloys are probably feasible.

MULTIFUNCTION FOR PERFORMANCE TAILORED STRUCTURES

Leslie Momoda, Director, Sensors and Materials Laboratory, HRL Laboratories.

Dr. Momoda began with a discussion of multifunctional structurally adaptive materials, including those that have controllable electrical, thermal, and acoustic transmission or that exhibit color or surface texture adaption. A potential approach is to embed the responsive materials in a structural matrix (one that supports mechanical stresses well) such as a composite, foam or microlattice material. The system benefits from such an advance, she noted, would be significant, including lighter, longer-range vehicles, more payload capacity, mission adaptive behavior (including camouflage), and self-diagnosis, healing and targeted maintenance. Her presentation reviewed developments in macro-scalable integrated thermal management, self-healing structures based on micro-vascular concepts, meta materials for acoustic and EMI shielding, soft materials including shape memory polymers and variable stiffness composites. Dr. Momoda discussed multifunctional battery work including batteries that can be painted on a surface (Rice University), carbon fiber batteries (KTH, Sweden), fiber reinforced lithium ion batteries (HRL) and a BAE fiber-based Ni-MH chemistry system. She reviewed the many challenges that will be encountered in realizing these concepts and discussed potential applications in small unmanned systems and robotics. She stated that tracking developments in these areas is likely to provide early warning of potentially game-changing advances by adversaries. Her presentation also included a comprehensive bibliography of relevant research papers and reports.



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