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Anderson, D., A. Hollingsworth, S. Uppala, and P. Woiceshyn. 1991. A study of the use of scatterometer data in the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts operational analysis-forecast model, 1, Quality assurance and validation. J. Geophys. Res. 96:2619–2634.

Andersson E., A. Hollingsworth, G. Kelly, P. Lönnberg, J. Pailleux, and Z. Zhang. 1991. Observing system experiments on NESDIS statistical retrievals of TOVS satellite data using the 1988 ECMWF data assimilation system. To appear in Mon. Weather Rev., July issue.

Andre, J.-C., J.-P. Goutorbe, and A. Perrier. 1986. HAPEX-MOBILHY: A hydrologic atmospheric experiment for the study of water budget and evaporation flux at the climatic scale. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 67:138–145.

Arkin, P.A., and P.E. Ardanuy. 1989. Estimating climatic-scale precipitation from space: A review. J. Climate 2:1229–1238.

Arpe, K. 1991. The hydrological cycle in the ECMWF short range forecasts. Accepted by Dyn. Atmos. Oceans.

Atlas, R., A.J. Busalacchi, M. Ghil, S. Bloom, and E. Kalnay. 1987. Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation. J. Geophys. Res. 92:6477–6487.


Bennett, A.F., and W.P. Budgell. 1987. Ocean data assimilation and the Kalman filter, spatial regularity. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 17:1583–1601.

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Bierman, G.J. 1977. Factorization Methods for Discrete Sequential Estimation. Academic Press. Orlando, Fla., 241 pp.



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Four-Dimensional Model Assimilation of Data: A Strategy for the Earth System Sciences References Anderson, D.L.T., and A.M. Moore. 1989. Initialization of equatorial waves in ocean models. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 19:116–121. Anderson, D., A. Hollingsworth, S. Uppala, and P. Woiceshyn. 1991. A study of the use of scatterometer data in the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts operational analysis-forecast model, 1, Quality assurance and validation. J. Geophys. Res. 96:2619–2634. Andersson E., A. Hollingsworth, G. Kelly, P. Lönnberg, J. Pailleux, and Z. Zhang. 1991. Observing system experiments on NESDIS statistical retrievals of TOVS satellite data using the 1988 ECMWF data assimilation system. To appear in Mon. Weather Rev., July issue. Andre, J.-C., J.-P. Goutorbe, and A. Perrier. 1986. HAPEX-MOBILHY: A hydrologic atmospheric experiment for the study of water budget and evaporation flux at the climatic scale. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 67:138–145. Arkin, P.A., and P.E. Ardanuy. 1989. Estimating climatic-scale precipitation from space: A review. J. Climate 2:1229–1238. Arpe, K. 1991. The hydrological cycle in the ECMWF short range forecasts. Accepted by Dyn. Atmos. Oceans. Atlas, R., A.J. Busalacchi, M. Ghil, S. Bloom, and E. Kalnay. 1987. Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation. J. Geophys. Res. 92:6477–6487. Bennett, A.F., and W.P. Budgell. 1987. Ocean data assimilation and the Kalman filter, spatial regularity. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 17:1583–1601. Bennett, A.F., and P.C. McIntosh. 1982. Open ocean modeling as an inverse problem: Tidal theory. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 12:1004–1018. Bierman, G.J. 1977. Factorization Methods for Discrete Sequential Estimation. Academic Press. Orlando, Fla., 241 pp.

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