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Committee on Mine Safety: Essential Components of Self-Escape Board on Human-Systems Integration Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropri- ate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 200-2011-38807 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-28276-5 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-28276-4 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2013). Improving Self-Escape from Underground Coal Mines. Committee on Mine Safety: Essential Components of Self-Escape. Board on Human-Systems Integration, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON MINE SAFETY: ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF SELF-ESCAPE William S. Marras (Chair), Integrated Systems Engineering Department, Ohio State University David Beerbower, Beerbower Safety Associates, LLC, Wildwood, MO Sian L. Beilock, Department of Psychology, University of Chicago David Cliff, Sustainable Minerals Institute, University of Queensland, Australia James Dean, Director of Mining and Industrial Extension, West Virginia University David M. DeJoy, College of Public Health, University of Georgia (Emeritus) Albert W. Holland, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX Dennis B. O’Dell, United Mine Workers of America, Triangle, VA David H. Wegman, Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Emeritus) Toby Warden, Study Director Julie Anne Schuck, Senior Program Associate Renée L. Wilson Gaines, Senior Program Assistant v

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BOARD ON HUMAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Nancy J. Cooke (Chair), Cognitive Science and Engineering, Arizona State University Ellen Bass, College of Information Science and Technology and College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University Pascale Carayon, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center for Quality and Productivity Improvement, University of Wisconsin–Madison Mary (Missy) Cummings, Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sara J. Czaja, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Center on Aging, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Francis (Frank) T. Durso, Georgia Institute of Technology Andrew S. Imada, A.S. Imada and Associates, Carmichael, CA Karl S. Pister, Chancellor (Emeritus), University of California, Santa Cruz, and Dean and Roy W. Carlson Professor of Engineering (Emeritus), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California, Berkeley David Rempel, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Matthew Rizzo, Departments of Neurology and Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, and the Public Policy Center, University of Iowa Barbara Silverstein, Safety & Health Assessment and Research for Prevention Program, Washington State Department of Labor and Industries David H. Wegman, Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Emeritus) Howard M. Weiss, Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University Barbara A. Wanchisen, Director Jatryce Jackson, Program Associate Moses Jackson, Program Associate vi

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Acknowledgments T his report is the work of the Committee on Mine Safety: Essential Components of Self-Escape, a project of the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, overseen by the Board on Human-Systems Integration. This study was sponsored by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research. The committee is grateful for the support and contributions of NIOSH staff, Jeffery Kohler, associate director for mining, and director, Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, especially for assisting the committee to better understand the coal mine industry, and Marie Chovanec for her able assistance throughout the study process. The committee thanks the numerous individuals for their presenta- tions at the public workshop on April 24, 2012. The workshop included presentations and discussions from five panels. Panel 1, Mine Operator Perspectives, included the following individuals: Richard Abraham, RIO Group, Inc.; Dale Byram, Jim Walter Resources, Inc.; John Gallick, Alpha Natural Resources; and Joseph LaMonica, consultant, Bituminous Coal Operators Association. Panel 2, Training, Decision Making, and Teams, included the following individuals: Dana Brooks, Prince George’s County Maryland Fire/EMS Department, Fire Training Academy instructor; Janis Cannon-Bowers, University of Central Florida; Hendrick Ruck, Human Performance Consulting Group; and Eric Weiss, U.S. Army, George Mason University. Panel 3, Design and Health, included the following individuals: Robert Cohen, Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Illinois, and Sundaresan vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Jayaraman, Georgia Institute of Technology. Panel 4, Systems, Communica- tion, and Lifeline Technology, included the following individuals: Warren Gross, Lockheed Martin; Michael Hastings, Carroll Technologies Group; Steven Shope, Sandia Research Corporation; and Larry Stolarczyk, Stolar Research Corporation. The final panel, Panel 5, Breathing Apparatus Tech- nology, included the following individuals: Kent Armstrong, Draeger Safety, Inc.; Steven Berning, Ocenco, Inc.; and Scott Shearer, CSE Corporation. The committee also benefited from briefings in support of their data- gathering to inform the contents of this report, provided during the com- mittee’s four initial meetings. From the NIOSH Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, we thank Tom Barczak, director, Division of Mining Science and Technology; Michael Brnich, mining engineer, Human Fac- tors Branch; R.J. Matetic, director, Division of Mining Research Opera- tions; and staff members Rohan Fernando, senior research engineer; Launa Mallett, acting team leader, Training Research Development Team; and Joseph Waynert, team leader, Electrical Safety and Comunication Team. From the technical support group of the Mine Safety and Health Admin- istration, we thank Jeffery H. Kravitz, acting director, and John Urosek, chief, Mine Emergency Operations. We also thank Kathleen M. Kowalski- Trakofler, consultant; Kris Lilly, Redbone Mining; Joseph Sbaffoni, director, Pennsylvania Bureau of Mine Safety; and John Wreathall, John Wreathall & Company, Inc. The committee participated in two site visits during the course of the study to the Consol Energy Bailey Mine, an underground coal mine in southwestern Pennsylvania, and the Academy for Mine Training and En- ergy Technologies at West Virginia University (WVU). At Consol Energy, we thank Eric Schubel, general superintendent, for his facilitation of the committee’s visit. At WVU, we thank Joshua Caldwell, director, Acad- emy for Mine Training and Energy Technologies; Jay Cole, chief of staff, President’s Office; Thomas Hall, extension agent; Randy Long, laboratory instrumentation specialist; Steven Perkins, extension agent; Henry Pisegna, instructor; and George Rannenburg, extension agent. The committee would also like to acknowledge the self-contained self-rescuer manufacturers who donated product for the committee during the WVU activity: Kent Armstrong, Draeger Safety, Inc.; Scott Shearer, CSE Corporation; and Jerry Stickler, Ocenco, Inc. Prior to the formation of the committee and throughout the dura- tion of the project, the contributions of consultants and staff have been critical. Consultants to this study included Gary Klein, senior scientist, MacroCognition LLC, and Edward Levine, professor emeritus, Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa. Among the NRC staff, special thanks are due to Barbara Wanchisen and Melissa Welch-Ross, director and former deputy director, respectively, of the Board on Human-

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix Systems Integration who provided oversight and support of the study. Julie Anne Schuck, senior program associate, contributed to all aspects of report preparation including research, editing, and writing. Renée L. Wilson Gaines, senior project assistant, provided administrative and logistical sup- port throughout the study. Matthew McDonough, research associate, also provided critical substantive and organizational support to the committee’s public workshop held in April 2012. Anthony Brown, senior program as- sistant, provided additional logistical support for the public workshop. Cherie Chauvin, senior program officer, also assisted in substantive and organizational tasks throughout the study. And finally we thank the execu- tive office reports staff of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, especially Eugenia Grohman, who provided valuable help with the editing and production of the report; Kirsten Sampson Snyder, who managed the report review process and prepublication release; and Yvonne Wise, who managed the production process. Additional research and tech- nical assistance was provided by Matthew Von Hendy, research librarian, and Ellen Reid, summer intern. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Winston “Wink” Bennett, Human Performance Wing, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base; Jim Brinkley, Occupational Health and Safety, International Association of Fire Fighters, Washington, DC; Dale Byram, Safety Efforts, Walter Energy, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama; Elaine T. Cullen, Prima Consulting Services, Chattaroy, Washington; Sara J. Czaja, Department of Psychiatry and Be- havioral Sciences Scientific and Center on Aging, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine; Dave Feickert, consultant, Whanganui, New Zealand; Sundaresan Jayaraman, School of Materials Science and Engineer- ing, Georgia Institute of Technology; Syd S. Peng, Mining Engineering, West Virginia University; Eduardo Salas, Department of Psychology and Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida; and Stanley C. Suboleski, Evan Energy Investments, Richmond, Virginia. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release.

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The review of this report was overseen by Matthew Rizzo, Departments of Neurology and Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, and the Public Policy Center, University of Iowa, as coordinator, and Georges S. Benjamin, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, as review monitor. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully con- sidered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution. William S. Marras, Chair Toby Warden, Study Director Committee on Mine Safety: Essential Components of Self-Escape

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Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 11 2 Mine Safety Regulations and Practices 19 3 Understanding Self-Escape 37 4 Decision Making 63 5 Safety Culture 85 6 Training 95 References 119 Appendixes A Regulations Relevant to Self-Escape 129 B Mine Accident, Injury and Illness Report 157 C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff 163 xi

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